1200 ERM MOD 3 EXERCISES

 
Student interactivity exercises embedded in the Module Two Lecture PPT (worth up to 40 points), which includes an emergency alert system exercise and ASSN

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ERM 1200 Introduction to Emergency Management

Module 3: Chapters 2, 5, 6, and 10

Course Description
ERM 1200 Introduction to Emergency Management provides an overview of the history and current status of the emergency management discipline. Topics include an introduction to areas of emergency management responsibility including risk assessment, mitigation, preparedness, communications, response and recovery.
1

DIAGRAM OF MAJOR COURSE CONCEPTS*

*United States Federal Emergency Information Management (2015). National preparedness cycle. Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from http://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-cycle.

Diagram of Major Course Concepts
United States Federal Emergency Information Management (2015). National preparedness cycle. Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from http://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-cycle.
2

How to prepare

Tips for preparing for the material in this module
Read the chapters before listening to the lecture.
This course relies heavily on content from the federal emergency management agency emergency management institute and the community emergency response team in your area.
If you haven’t done so already: Go to the federal emergency management agency website and register as a student in independent studies. You will then receive a student identification number, which will be important. If you cannot obtain a student ID, inform your instructor. You will need a student identification number in order to take the final exam for this course. Link: http://www.Training.Fema.Gov/is/courseoverview.Aspx?Code=is-230.D
Read the FEMA course “IS-230.D: Fundamentals of Emergency Management” overview.

How to Prepare
Tips for preparing for the material in this module
Read the chapters before listening to the lecture.
This course relies heavily on content from the federal emergency management agency emergency management institute and the community emergency response team in your area.
Go to the federal emergency management agency website and register as a student in independent studies. You will then receive a student identification number, which will be important. If you cannot obtain a student ID, inform your instructor. You will need a student identification number in order to take the final exam for this course. Link: http://www.Training.Fema.Gov/is/courseoverview.Aspx?Code=is-230.D
Read the FEMA course “IS-230.D: Fundamentals of Emergency Management” overview.
3

Module 3 At A Glance:
Chapters 2, 5, 6, & 10
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

Module 3 At A Glance
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

4

Chapter 2 Learning Objectives:
Define the concepts used for disaster and explain the similarities and differences among them.
Understand and distinguish between the traditions of hazards, disaster, and risk.
Explain the importance of comprehensive emergency management.
Identify key theoretical perspectives for understanding disaster behavior.
Describe current political and social definitions of disaster
Explain the emergence and importance of using a multidisciplinary approach to emergency management.

Chapter 2 Learning Objectives:
Define the concepts used for disaster and explain the similarities and differences among them.
Understand and distinguish between the traditions of hazards, disaster, and risk.
Explain the importance of comprehensive emergency management.
Identify key theoretical perspectives for understanding disaster behavior.
Describe current political and social definitions of disaster
Explain the emergence and importance of using a multidisciplinary approach to emergency management.
5

Defining Disasters
Multiple definitions exist
Textbook focus – disasters are social events
Classic definition for disaster is an: “ …actual or threatened accidental or uncontrollable events that are concentrated in time and space, in which a society, or a relatively self-sufficient subdivision of society undergoes severe danger, and incurs such losses to its members and physical appurtenances that the social structure is disrupted and the fulfillment of all or some of the essential functions of the society, or its subdivision, is prevented” (Fritz, 1961, p. 655).

Defining Disasters
Multiple definitions exist
Textbook focus – Disasters are social events
Classic definition for disaster is an: “ …actual or threatened accidental or uncontrollable events that are concentrated in time and space, in which a society, or a relatively self-sufficient subdivision of society undergoes severe danger, and incurs such losses to its members and physical appurtenances that the social structure is disrupted and the fulfillment of all or some of the essential functions of the society, or its subdivision, is prevented” (Fritz, 1961, p. 655).
6

Types of Events
Everyday life/emergency: Predictable day-to-day events, e.g., house fires
Disaster: Events that disrupt day-to-day activities within a community
Catastrophe: Events that disrupt day-to-day activities not only in a community but wide geographic region. Resources become difficult to obtain, and aid beyond political boundaries are necessary

Types of Events
A Continuum of Disaster
Emergency – Routine, predictable, handled locally
Disaster – Community disruption, local capacity overwhelmed, outside help needed
Catastrophe – Regional impact, infrastructure compromised, aid slow to arrive
Everyday life/emergency: Predictable day-to-day events, e.g., house fires
Disaster: Events that disrupt day-to-day activities within a community
Catastrophe: Events that disrupt day-to-day activities not only in a community but wide geographic region. Resources become difficult to obtain, and aid beyond political boundaries are necessary
7
Emergency

Disaster

Catastrophe

Routine

Predictable

Handled locally

Community disruption

Local capacity overwhelmed

Outside help needed

Regional impact

Infrastructure compromised

Aid slow to arrive

National Governors Association Report 1979
Comprehensive emergency management
The four phases of emergency management
Preparedness – getting ready for a disaster
Response – dealing with the impact of a disaster
Recovery – getting life back to normal
Mitigation – activities to decrease a disaster impact
All hazards approach:
One major planning document
More similarities than differences among social dimensions of disaster
Use across all four phases of disaster
Exceptions dealt with in planning annex
Much more efficient for preparedness and planning

National Governors Association Report 1979
Comprehensive Emergency Management
The Four Phases of Emergency Management
Preparedness – getting ready for a disaster
Response – dealing with the impact of a disaster
Recovery – getting life back to normal
Mitigation – activities to decrease a disaster impact
All hazards approach
One major planning document
More similarities than differences among social dimensions of disaster
Use across all four phases of disaster
Exceptions dealt with in planning annex
Much more efficient for preparedness and planning

8

Traditions
The hazards tradition:
Geographer Gilbert White
Initial focus on hazard mitigation efforts
Multidiscipline approach toward hazards
Formed natural hazards research and application information center mid-1970’s at the University of Colorado-center
Tradition continues strong today
Disaster research center tradition:
Charles Fritz, E. L. Quarantelli And Russell R. Dynes – all sociologists
Initial focus human behavior during war and “response time” activities
DRC formed 1963 at the Ohio State University: Quarantelli, Dynes, Haas
Tradition continues today at University Of Delaware: Studies all phases today; draws upon interdisciplinary work; over 600 field trips to disaster sites

Traditions
The hazards tradition:
Geographer Gilbert White
Initial focus on hazard mitigation efforts
Multidiscipline approach toward hazards
Formed Natural Hazards Research and Application Information Center mid-1970’s at the University of Colorado-Center
Tradition continues strong today
Disaster research center tradition:
Charles Fritz, E. L. Quarantelli And Russell R. Dynes – all sociologists
Initial focus human behavior during war and “response time” activities
DRC formed 1963 at the Ohio State University: Quarantelli, Dynes, Haas
Tradition continues today at University Of Delaware: Studies all phases today; draws upon interdisciplinary work; over 600 field trips to disaster sites
9

Comprehensive Emergency Management
Risk and risk perception:
Originated after three mile island nuclear accident in 1979
Focus on
How people see risk (probability of an event taking place
How risk influences people’s behavior
Primarily the work of (social) psychologists
All perspectives can be used simultaneously to understand events

Comprehensive Emergency Management
Comprehensive emergency management:
Recovery
Mitigation
Preparedness
Response
Risk and Risk Perception
Originated after Three Mile Island nuclear accident in 1979
Focus on
How people see risk (probability of an event taking place
How risk influences people’s behavior
Primarily the work of (social) psychologists
All perspectives can be used simultaneously to understand events
10

Broader Perspectives
Emergent Norm
Systems Theory
Sociopolitical Ecology Perspective
All three provide different views to understand hazards, disasters and risk
Emergent Norm:
Foundation for “quick response” research
Key characteristics
New norms: Altruistic behavior, decrease of crime
New structure: Altruistic behavior, decrease of crime, and new norms – emergent search and rescue group
Spontaneous behavior: Ad hoc neighborhood search and rescue groups

Broader Perspectives
Emergent Norm
Systems Theory
Sociopolitical Ecology Perspective
All three provide different views to understand hazards, disasters and risk
Emergent norm:
Foundation for “quick response” research
Key characteristics
New norms: Altruistic behavior, decrease of crime
New structure: Altruistic behavior, decrease of crime, and new norms – emergent search and rescue group
Spontaneous behavior: Ad hoc neighborhood search and rescue groups

11

sociopolitical ecology perspective
Sociopolitical Ecology Perspective:
Foundation from systems theory
Looks at
Competition for resources in a community
Patterns of disaster victimization
Highlights that certain groups more likely to be disaster victims, such as:
The poor
Ethnic minorities
The elderly

Sociopolitical Ecology Perspective
Sociopolitical Ecology Perspective
Foundation from Systems Theory
Looks at
Competition for resources in a community
Patterns of disaster victimization
Highlights that certain groups more likely to be disaster victims, such as:
The poor
Ethnic minorities
The elderly
12

Systems Theory
How the built environment, physical environment and people interact together
Foundation for initial hazards approach
Key question: How do people live next to and adjust living next to such events as:
Earthquakes
Floods
Tornadoes
Systems Theory (Based on Mileti 1999)
Source: Phillips 2009, with permission.

Systems Theory
How the built environment, physical environment and people interact together
Foundation for initial Hazards approach
Key question: How do people live next to and adjust living next to such events as:
Earthquakes
Floods
Tornadoes
Systems Theory (Based on Mileti 1999)
Source: Phillips 2009, with permission.
Physical Environment—-Human Environment—-Built Environment
13

Key Issues Today
Political dimension: (1) Power influences political and governmental definitions of disaster; (2) Presidentially declared disasters have little political influence
Slow moving disasters: (1) Events harder to define; (2) Challenges many conventional notions of disaster
Non-traditional events: (1) Emergency operating centers and professional managers provide expertise for other events; (2) Large crowd gatherings or even riots; (3) Space shuttle Columbia recovery
Multidisciplinary perspectives: (1) Different social sciences provide key perspectives on individual, group, organizational and political behavior; (2) Engineering and hard sciences assist with issues such as building standards, geology and meteorology; (3) Emergency managements must know about many different fields for their jobs

Key Issues Today
Political dimension: (1) Power influences political and governmental definitions of disaster; (2) Presidentially declared disasters have little political influence
Slow moving disasters: (1) Events harder to define; (2) Challenges many conventional notions of disaster
Non-traditional events: (1) Emergency operating centers and professional managers provide expertise for other events; (2) Large crowd gatherings or even riots; (3) Space shuttle Columbia recovery
Multidisciplinary perspectives: (1) Different social sciences provide key perspectives on individual, group, organizational and political behavior; (2) Engineering and hard sciences assist with issues such as building standards, geology and meteorology; (3) Emergency managements must know about many different fields for their jobs
14

Student interactivity exercises
Emergency Alert System Exercise: Go to: http://www.Training.Fema.Gov/is/courseoverview.Aspx?Code=is-248 and take the interactive web based course – IS-0248 Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS) for the American Public, once completed take the final quiz and forward the email of the results and certificate to the instructor.
In a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th Edition format answer the following questions from Chapter 2: (1) Explain why disaster planners need to focus on the social aspects of disasters as much if not more than the physical impact of disasters. (2) Distinguish between structural and non-structural mitigation and give examples of each. (3) Why does it take policies and presidential orders to influence mitigation?
Your exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th Edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th Edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th Edition format as well.

Student Interactivity Exercises
Emergency Alert System Exercise: Go to: http://www.Training.Fema.Gov/is/courseoverview.Aspx?Code=is-248 and take the interactive web based course – IS-0248 Integrated Public Alert And Warning System (IPAWS) for the American Public, once completed take the final quiz and forward the email of the results and certificate to the instructor.
In a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th Edition format answer the following questions from Chapter 2: (1) Explain why disaster planners need to focus on the social aspects of disasters as much if not more than the physical impact of disasters. (2) Distinguish between structural and non-structural mitigation and give examples of each. (3) Why does it take policies and presidential orders to influence mitigation?
Your exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th Edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th Edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th Edition format as well.
15

Module 3 At A Glance:
Chapters 2, 5, 6, & 10
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

Module 3 At A Glance
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation
16

Chapter 5 Learning Objectives:
Understand the relevance of recommended core competencies for emergency management practice.
Compare and contrast professional competency standards and professional qualities for a practitioner of emergency management.
Explain ethical practice standards and behavioral expectations for the practice of emergency management.
Identify and provide an overview of organizations involved in the field of emergency management.
Illustrate the traditional activities of the emergency manager during routine days as well as during times of disaster.
Discuss why certification is considered an important step in developing a professional identity as an emergency manager.

Chapter 5 Learning Objectives:
Understand the relevance of recommended core competencies for emergency management practice.
Compare and contrast professional competency standards and professional qualities for a practitioner of emergency management.
Explain ethical practice standards and behavioral expectations for the practice of emergency management.
Identify and provide an overview of organizations involved in the field of emergency management.
Illustrate the traditional activities of the emergency manager during routine days as well as during times of disaster.
Discuss why certification is considered an important step in developing a professional identity as an emergency manager.
17

Core Competencies
Comprehensive emergency management framework or philosophy
Leadership and team-building
Management
Networking and coordination
Integrated emergency management
Political, bureaucratic, social contexts
Technical systems and standards
Social vulnerability reduction approach
Experience
Key emergency management functions
Risk assessment
Planning
Training and exercising
Emergency operations centers
Establishing interoperable communications
Applying lessons learned and research findings

Core Competencies
Comprehensive emergency management framework or philosophy
Leadership and team-building
Management
Networking and coordination
Integrated emergency management
Political, bureaucratic, social contexts
Technical systems and standards
Social vulnerability reduction approach
Experience
Key emergency management functions
Risk assessment
Planning
Training and exercising
Emergency operations centers
Establishing interoperable communications
Applying lessons learned and research findings
18

Practice Standards and Ethics
NFPA 1600
Risk analysis
Preventing incidents
Mitigation
Resource management and logistical coordination
Mutual aid agreements
Planning
Incident management
Communication
Crisis communication
Warning dissemination and informing the public
Operational procedures
Facility management
Training, education, exercises
Financial accountability

Practice Standards and Ethics NFPA 1600
Risk analysis
Preventing incidents
Mitigation
Resource management and logistical coordination
Mutual aid agreements
Planning
Incident Management
—————————————-
Communication
Crisis communication
Warning dissemination and informing the public
Operational procedures
Facility management
Training, education, exercises
Financial accountability
19

Practice Standards and Ethics
IAEM Code of Ethics
“Respect for supervising officials, colleagues, associates, and most importantly, for the people we serve is the standard for IAEM members.
“IAEM members commit themselves to promoting decisions that engender trust and those we serve.
“Our reputations are built on the faithful discharge of our duties.”
Source: http://www.Iaem.Com/about/iaemcodeofethics.Htm

Practice Standards and Ethics IAEM Code of Ethics
“Respect for supervising officials, colleagues, associates, and most importantly, for the people we serve is the standard for IAEM members.
“IAEM members commit themselves to promoting decisions that engender trust and those we serve.
“Our reputations are built on the faithful discharge of our duties.”
Source: http://www.Iaem.Com/about/iaemcodeofethics.Htm
20

EM Organizations and Agencies
Governmental
Local
State/provincial
Interstate/regional
National
Non-governmental organizations
Citizen Corps
Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT)
Fire Corps
Citizen Corps
Volunteers In Police Service (VIPS)
Neighborhood Watch
Medical Reserve Corps
Private sector:
Banks
Insurance companies
Corporations
Small businesses
Consulting

EM Organizations and Agencies
Governmental
Local
State/Provincial
Interstate/Regional
National
Non-Governmental Organizations
Community Organizations
Citizen Corps
Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT)
Fire Corps
Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS)
Neighborhood Watch
Medical Reserve Corps
Private sector:
Banks
Insurance companies
Corporations
Small businesses
Consulting

21

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.1: Governmental Organizational Chart
Secretary
Deputy Secretary
Management (Chief Financial Officer), Science & Technology, National Protection & programs, Policy, General Counsel, Legislative Affairs, Public Affairs, Inspector General
Health Affairs, Intelligence & Analysis, Operations Coordination, Citizenship & Immigration Services Ombudsman, Chief Privacy Officer, Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Counter-Narcotics Enforcement
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, National Cyber Security Center
Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Customs & Border Protection, U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services, U.S. Secret Service, Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Coast Guard

22

Figure 5.2
U.S. Department of Homeland Security/FEMA organizational chart
23

Seasonal Activities
Tornado Season – March 1
Hurricane Season – June 1
Cyclone Season – November 1
Working and volunteering in emergency management:
Join a citizen corps group
Look for an internship in an EMA
Assist a faculty member with research
Volunteer internationally – peace corps
Join a faith-based disaster team
Be aware of the sources of disaster myths:
Mass media
Institutional interests (e.g., Security contractors and technology firms)
Society at large—images of chaos reaffirm the need for social order (Quarantelli 2002)

Seasonal Activities
Tornado Season – March 1
Hurricane Season – June 1
Cyclone Season – November 1
Working and volunteering in emergency management:
Join a citizen corps group
Look for an internship in an EMA
Assist a faculty member with research
Volunteer internationally – peace corps
Join a faith-based disaster team
Be aware of the sources of disaster myths:
Mass media
Institutional interests (e.g., Security contractors and technology firms)
Society at large—images of chaos reaffirm the need for social order (Quarantelli 2002)

24

Student interactivity exercises
In a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th Edition format answer the following questions from Chapter 5:
Describe three basic ethical guidelines for the practice of emergency management and why they add to the credibility of the profession.
Your exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th Edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th Edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th Edition format as well.

Student Interactivity Exercises
In a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th Edition format answer the following questions from Chapters 5:
Describe three basic ethical guidelines for the practice of emergency management and why they add to the credibility of the profession.
Your exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th Edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th Edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th Edition format as well.
25

Module 3 At A Glance:
Chapters 2, 5, 6, & 10
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

Module 3 At A Glance
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

26

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives:
Define preparedness and understand its relationship to the broader life cycle of emergency management.
Identify various types of preparedness activities that can be undertaken at the individual, household, organizational, and community levels.
Describe levels of disaster preparedness among individuals and households, organizations, and communities, and identify factors that influence preparedness levels.
Identify particular groups that remain at risk due to lack of preparedness and list suggestions for enhancing their readiness.
Provide examples of preparedness initiatives at the state, national, and international levels.
Outline steps in conducting a hazard identification and risk analysis as the first critical step in preparedness and planning efforts.
Identify potential places to work and volunteer in the field of preparedness.

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives:
Define preparedness and understand its relationship to the broader life cycle of emergency management.
Identify various types of preparedness activities that can be undertaken at the individual, household, organizational, and community levels.
Describe levels of disaster preparedness among individuals and households, organizations, and communities, and identify factors that influence preparedness levels.
Identify particular groups that remain at risk due to lack of preparedness and list suggestions for enhancing their readiness.
Provide examples of preparedness initiatives at the state, national, and international levels.
Outline steps in conducting a hazard identification and risk analysis as the first critical step in preparedness and planning efforts.
Identify potential places to work and volunteer in the field of preparedness.
27

Preliminary Damage Assessment
Number and type of houses damaged as well as the extent of damage, from minor to completely destroyed.
Consideration of populations that may require additional assistance such as people living in local nursing homes, assisted living facilities, state schools and group homes.
Impact on local utilities including power, telephone, cell towers, gas, water, and storm water drainage.
Damage to critical infrastructure such as bridges, under passes, railroads, subways, airports, waterways, and roads.
The impacts on local cultural and historical resources that represent a shared identity and heritage and may impact tourism and the local economy.
The hit taken by local businesses, including home-based, locally-owned, franchise, corporate and other types of businesses.  

Preliminary Damage Assessment
Number and type of houses damaged as well as the extent of damage, from minor to completely destroyed.
Consideration of populations that may require additional assistance such as people living in local nursing homes, assisted living facilities, state schools and group homes.
Impact on local utilities including power, telephone, cell towers, gas, water, and storm water drainage.
Damage to critical infrastructure such as bridges, under passes, railroads, subways, airports, waterways, and roads.
The impacts on local cultural and historical resources that represent a shared identity and heritage and may impact tourism and the local economy.
The hit taken by local businesses, including home-based, locally-owned, franchise, corporate and other types of businesses.  
28

Defining Preparedness
Preparedness commonly refers to activities undertaken prior to the onset of a disaster to enhance the response capacities of individuals and households, organizations, communities, states, and nations.
Enhanced response capacity refers to the ability of social units to accurately assess a hazard, realistically anticipate likely problems in the event of an actual disaster, and appropriately take precautionary measures to reduce impacts and ensure an efficient and effective response.
Overall preparedness levels are alarmingly low due to: competing priorities; financial constraints; notion that disasters are low-probability events (but high-consequence); and fatalistic cultural beliefs and lack of collective efficacy
Some households, organizations, and communities are more prepared than others.
Preparedness is both a personal and shared responsibility.

Defining Preparedness
Preparedness commonly refers to activities undertaken prior to the onset of a disaster to enhance the response capacities of individuals and households, organizations, communities, states, and nations.
Enhanced response capacity refers to the ability of social units to accurately assess a hazard, realistically anticipate likely problems in the event of an actual disaster, and appropriately take precautionary measures to reduce impacts and ensure an efficient and effective response.
Overall preparedness levels are alarmingly low due to: competing priorities; financial constraints; notion that disasters are low-probability events (but high-consequence); and fatalistic cultural beliefs and lack of collective efficacy
Some households, organizations, and communities are more prepared than others.
Preparedness is both a personal and shared responsibility.
29

Individual Preparedness Activities
Preparedness can be viewed and measured at different levels of analysis; there are varying degrees of preparedness.
We lack a standardized measure of disaster preparedness at the community, state, national, and international levels of analysis.
We must consider disaster preparedness in a cultural context; preparedness is best approached from the all-hazards approach to emergency management.
Obtaining disaster-related information.; example: Attending meetings to learn about disaster preparedness.
Purchasing food and water and storing a flashlight, radio, batteries and a first aid kit.
Learning first aid and developing and practicing a family emergency plan.
Bracing furniture (in earthquake-prone areas) and installing shutters (in hurricane-prone areas) or a safe room or storm cellar (in tornado-prone areas).
Purchasing hazard-specific insurance.

Individual Preparedness Activities
Preparedness can be viewed and measured at different levels of analysis; there are varying degrees of preparedness.
We lack a standardized measure of disaster preparedness at the community, state, national, and international levels of analysis.
We must consider disaster preparedness in a cultural context; preparedness is best approached from the all-hazards approach to emergency management.
Obtaining disaster-related information.; example: Attending meetings to learn about disaster preparedness.
Purchasing food and water and storing a flashlight, radio, batteries and a first aid kit.
Learning first aid and developing and practicing a family emergency plan.
Bracing furniture (in earthquake-prone areas) and installing shutters (in hurricane-prone areas) or a safe room or storm cellar (in tornado-prone areas).
Purchasing hazard-specific insurance.
30

FEMA Recommendations for Disaster Supply Kits
Water, one gallon of water per person per day for at least three days, for drinking and sanitation
Food, at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food
Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a NOAA weather radio with tone alert and extra batteries for both
Flashlight and extra batteries, cell phone with chargers
First aid kit
Whistle to signal for help
Dust mask, to help filter contaminated air and plastic sheeting and duct tape to shelter-in-place
Moist towelettes, garbage bags and plastic ties for personal sanitation
Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities
Can opener for food (if kit contains canned food)
Local maps

Box 6.1 FEMA Recommendations for Disaster Supply Kits
Water, one gallon of water per person per day for at least three days, for drinking and sanitation
Food, at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food
Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a NOAA Weather Radio with tone alert and extra batteries for both
Flashlight and extra batteries, cell phone with chargers
First aid kit
Whistle to signal for help
Dust mask, to help filter contaminated air and plastic sheeting and duct tape to shelter-in-place
Moist towelettes, garbage bags and plastic ties for personal sanitation
Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities
Can opener for food (if kit contains canned food)
Local maps
31

Prescription medications and glasses
Infant formula and diapers
Pet food and extra water for your pet
Important family documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification and bank account records in a waterproof, portable container
Cash or traveler’s checks and change
Emergency reference material such as a first aid book or information from www.Ready.Gov
Sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person. Consider additional bedding if you live in a cold-weather climate.
Complete change of clothing including a long sleeved shirt, long pants and sturdy shoes. Consider additional clothing if you live in a cold-weather climate.
FEMA Recommendations for Disaster Supply Kits

Box 6.1 FEMA Recommendations for Disaster Supply Kits
Prescription medications and glasses
Infant formula and diapers
Pet food and extra water for your pet
Important family documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification and bank account records in a waterproof, portable container
Cash or traveler’s checks and change
Emergency reference material such as a first aid book or information from www.ready.gov
Sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person. Consider additional bedding if you live in a cold-weather climate.
Complete change of clothing including a long sleeved shirt, long pants and sturdy shoes. Consider additional clothing if you live in a cold-weather climate.

32

FEMA Recommendations for Disaster Supply Kits
Fire extinguisher
Matches in a waterproof container
Feminine supplies and personal hygiene items
Mess kits, paper cups, plates and plastic utensils, paper towels
Paper and pencil
Books, games, puzzles or other activities for children
Household chlorine bleach and medicine dropper – when diluted nine parts water to one part bleach, bleach can be used as a disinfectant. Or in an emergency, you can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.

Box 6.1 FEMA Recommendations for Disaster Supply Kits
Fire extinguisher
Matches in a waterproof container
Feminine supplies and personal hygiene items
Mess kits, paper cups, plates and plastic utensils, paper towels
Paper and pencil
Books, games, puzzles or other activities for children
Household chlorine bleach and medicine dropper – when diluted nine parts water to one part bleach, bleach can be used as a disinfectant. Or in an emergency, you can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.

33

Organizational & community Preparedness Activities
Organizational:
Talking to employees about disaster preparedness, and conducting drills and exercises.
Receiving specialized training and developing relocation plans.
Obtaining an emergency generator.
Purchasing business interruption insurance.
Community:
Testing sirens, the emergency alert system, and other warning systems and conducting educational programs and distributing disaster-related information.
Conducting multi-organizational drills and exercises.
Establishing mutual aid agreements with surrounding communities and maintaining an emergency operations center.
Conducting a hazard identification and risk analysis.

Organizational & Community Preparedness Activities
Organizational:
Talking to employees about disaster preparedness, and conducting drills and exercises.
Receiving specialized training and developing relocation plans.
Obtaining an emergency generator.
Purchasing business interruption insurance.
Community:
Testing sirens, the emergency alert system, and other warning systems and conducting educational programs and distributing disaster-related information.
Conducting multi-organizational drills and exercises.
Establishing mutual aid agreements with surrounding communities and maintaining an emergency operations center.
Conducting a hazard identification and risk analysis.
34

Characteristics of Effective Disaster Drills and Exercises
Realistic scenarios, including accurate assumptions about disaster-induced demands, resource shortages, and communication difficulties
Accurate assumptions about how people and organizations actually respond to disasters, rather than myths of disaster
Meaningful involvement from those involved, rather than ritualistic, symbolic, or mandated participation
Integration of multiple organizations and levels of government, along with citizen participants, and encourage coordination between them
A recognition that things will not always go exactly as planned and require participants to think creatively and improvise in order to solve unanticipated problems

Characteristics of Effective Disaster Drills and Exercises
Realistic scenarios, including accurate assumptions about disaster-induced demands, resource shortages, and communication difficulties
Accurate assumptions about how people and organizations actually respond to disasters, rather than myths of disaster;
Meaningful involvement from those involved, rather than ritualistic, symbolic, or mandated participation
Integration of multiple organizations and levels of government, along with citizen participants, and encourage coordination between them
A recognition that things will not always go exactly as planned and require participants to think creatively and improvise in order to solve unanticipated problems
35

Dimensions of Preparedness
Primary objectives: Life safety, protecting property, knowledge acquisition and dissemination, continuity of operations
Degree of coordination: Most households and organizations prepare in isolation from others.
Financial cost: Inexpensive measures (e.g., having a first-aid kit) are more common than more costly activities (e.g., installing a tornado shelter).
Being aware of populations at risk, including: Racial and ethnic minorities, senior citizens, people with disabilities, children, and other key factors such as gender, language, pre-disaster homeless populations, and pets.

Dimensions of Preparedness
Primary objectives: Life safety, protecting property, knowledge acquisition and dissemination, continuity of operations
Degree of coordination: Most households and organizations prepare in isolation from others.
Financial cost: Inexpensive measures (e.g., having a first-aid kit) are more common than more costly activities (e.g., installing a tornado shelter).
Being aware of populations at risk, including: Racial and ethnic minorities, senior citizens, people with disabilities, children, and other key factors such as gender, language, pre-disaster homeless populations, and pets.
36

Preparedness & the Life Cycle of Emergency Management
Effective preparedness should lead to a more effective response.
Recovery is also facilitated when plans are developed and challenges are anticipated during the preparedness phase.
The key difference between preparedness and mitigation is that the former assumes disasters will happen, while the latter attempts to prevent them from happening.
Figure 6.1 Preparedness Cycle
(Source: adapted from www.fema.gov/prepared)

Preparedness and the Life Cycle of Emergency Management
Effective preparedness should lead to a more effective response.
Recovery is also facilitated when plans are developed and challenges are anticipated during the preparedness phase.
The key difference between preparedness and mitigation is that the former assumes disasters will happen, while the latter attempts to prevent them from happening.
Figure 6.1 Preparedness Cycle (Source: adapted from www.fema.gov/prepared)
37

Levels of Preparedness
For households:
Surveys using checklists of activities like those described in chapter 6 reveal alarmingly low rates of preparedness.
Preparedness levels are low even in disaster-prone areas.
In a study of Florida households, Kapucu (2008) found that only 8 percent of respondents reported having a disaster supply kit stocked with enough basic provisions to shelter in place for three days, which FEMA recommends.
For organizations:
Emergency management agencies in the U.S. Have improved their levels of preparedness over the past several years.
Police, fire, and emergency medical services departments tend to prepare internally in isolation from other community organizations.
Private sector businesses have done very little to prepare for disasters.

Levels of Preparedness
For households:
Surveys using checklists of activities like those described in Chapter 6 reveal alarmingly low rates of preparedness.
Preparedness levels are low even in disaster-prone areas.
In a study of Florida households, Kapucu (2008) found that only 8 percent of respondents reported having a disaster supply kit stocked with enough basic provisions to shelter in place for three days, which FEMA recommends.
For organizations:
Emergency management agencies in the U.S. Have improved their levels of preparedness over the past several years.
Police, fire, and emergency medical services departments tend to prepare internally in isolation from other community organizations.
Private sector businesses have done very little to prepare for disasters.

38

Factors Affecting Levels of Preparedness
Individual and household characteristics: Higher income, higher levels of education, and presence of children are associated with higher levels of preparedness
Previous disaster experience: Disaster subcultures form in hazard-prone areas in which people are knowledgeable about what to do (e.g., Tornado alley and earthquake country). However, successful past experiences can also lead to complacency and arrogance (e.g., Hurricane parties)
Risk perception: Those who perceive a threat as more likely in the short term are most likely to prepare. Effective risk communication (e.g., public education campaigns) can shape people’s risk perception and thus improve their preparedness.

Factors Affecting Levels of Preparedness
Individual and Household Characteristics
Higher income, higher levels of education, and presence of children are associated with higher levels of preparedness
Previous Disaster Experience
Disaster subcultures form in hazard-prone areas in which people are knowledgeable about what to do (e.g., Tornado alley and Earthquake country).
However, successful past experiences can also lead to complacency and arrogance (e.g., Hurricane parties)
Risk Perception
Those who perceive a threat as more likely in the short term are most likely to prepare.
Effective risk communication (e.g., public education campaigns) can shape people’s risk perception and thus improve their preparedness.
Figure 6.2 Factors Affecting Household Preparedness (Source: Tierney et al. 2001)
39
Household characteristics
(e.g., presence of children)

Hazard awareness and risk perception

Previous disaster experience

Community Disaster Preparedness
A community is greater than the sum of its parts—thus, while it is important for households and organizations to prepare themselves, they must also work together.
It is difficult to compare communities in terms of their levels of preparedness because we lack a standardized measure.
Simpson (2008) has proposed a comprehensive community disaster preparedness index.
Fire protection
Emergency medical services and public safety/police
Planning and zoning
Emergency management office and other emergency functions, such as local emergency planning committees and additional community measures such as volunteer organizations
Hazard exposure
Evacuation plans and warning systems
Community resiliency and recovery potential (e.g., financial resources)

Community Disaster Preparedness
A community is greater than the sum of its parts—thus, while it is important for households and organizations to prepare themselves, they must also work together.
It is difficult to compare communities in terms of their levels of preparedness because we lack a standardized measure.
Simpson (2008) has proposed a comprehensive community disaster preparedness index.
Fire protection
Emergency medical services and public safety/police
Planning and zoning
Emergency management office and other emergency functions, such as local emergency planning committees and additional community measures such as volunteer organizations
Hazard exposure
Evacuation plans and warning systems
Community resiliency and recovery potential (e.g., financial resources)
40

Hazard Identification
& Risk Analysis

Figure 6.3 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis
(Sources: FEMA IS#1;Thomas et al. 2010).
41

Working & Volunteering in Preparedness
Volunteering: U.S. Citizen corps (www.Citizencorps.Gov), community emergency response team or CERT, volunteers in police service, fire corps, the medical reserve corps and neighborhood watch.
Working: preparedness coordinators for local emergency management agencies, hospitals, schools, and in private sector firms.
State example: Oklahoma’s red dirt ready campaign (http://www.Ok.Gov/reddirtready) and California’s great California shakeout (http://www.Shakeout.Org/).
National examples: FEMA’s ready.Gov campaign (www.Ready.Gov).
International example: United Nation’s international strategy for disaster reduction (http://unisdr.Org).

Working and Volunteering in Preparedness
Volunteering: U.S. Citizen Corps (www.citizencorps.gov), Community Emergency Response Team or CERT, Volunteers in Police Service, Fire Corps, the Medical Reserve Corps and Neighborhood Watch.
Working: Preparedness coordinators for local emergency management agencies, hospitals, schools, and in private sector firms.
State example: Oklahoma’s red dirt ready campaign (http://www.Ok.Gov/reddirtready) and California’s great California shakeout (http://www.Shakeout.Org/).
National examples: FEMA’s ready.Gov campaign (www.Ready.Gov).
International example: United Nation’s international strategy for disaster reduction (http://unisdr.Org).
42

Student interactivity exercises

Write a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th edition format answering the following questions:
Distinguish between the levels of preparedness for individual, businesses and the community and discuss why each are lacking in preparedness.
Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th edition format as well.

Student Interactivity Exercises
Write a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th edition format answering the following questions:
Distinguish between structural and non-structural mitigation and examples of each.
Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th edition format as well.
43

Student interactivity exercises
FEMA Computer Based Training: Lesson 5 – Emergency Operations Plan
Once you have completed a lesson, you are required to take a screenshot of the “lessons list” and paste it onto the final pages of your Student Interactivity Exercises following the references page (if used). You must paste the screenshot at the end of the Student Interactivity Exercises as proof that the lesson has been completed. There should be a checkmark next to the completed lesson. Failure to do so will result in the loss of the points associated with the FEMA Training.

Student Interactivity Exercises
FEMA Computer Based Training: Lesson 5 – Emergency Operations Plan
Once you have completed a lesson, you are required to take a screenshot of the “lessons list” and paste it onto the final pages of your Student Interactivity Exercises following the references page (if used). You must paste the screenshot at the end of the Student Interactivity Exercises as proof that the lesson has been completed. There should be a checkmark next to the completed lesson. Failure to do so will result in the loss of the points associated with the FEMA Training.

44

Module 3 At A Glance:
Chapters 2, 5, 6, & 10
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

Module 3 At A Glance
Chapter 2: Key Concepts, Definitions and Perspectives
Chapter 5: Becoming an Emergency Management Professional
Chapter 6: Preparedness
Chapter 10: Mitigation

45

Chapter 10 Learning Objectives:
Outline the general ideas and purposes behind mitigation.
Identify the types of structural mitigation actions that can be taken for various hazards.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of structural mitigation.
List the different types of non-structural mitigation that can be undertaken to reduce hazard losses.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of non-structural mitigation.
Outline key steps that can be taken to conduct mitigation planning.
Identify job and volunteer opportunities in the field of mitigation.
Take mitigation steps in their own homes and workplaces.

Chapter 10 Learning Objectives:
Outline the general ideas and purposes behind mitigation.
Identify the types of structural mitigation actions that can be taken for various hazards.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of structural mitigation.
List the different types of non-structural mitigation that can be undertaken to reduce hazard losses.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of non-structural mitigation.
Outline key steps that can be taken to conduct mitigation planning.
Identify job and volunteer opportunities in the field of mitigation.
Take mitigation steps in their own homes and workplaces.
46

Turning Points
1966, Presidential Executive order 11296 required federal agencies to reduce floodplain development.
1980, FEMA created their first interagency hazard mitigation teams.
1992, FEMA administrator Witt makes mitigation a top priority.
2001, pendulum swings back to response.
2005, mitigation concern renewed after Katrina.

Turning Points
1966, Presidential Executive Order 11296 required federal agencies to reduce floodplain development.
1980, FEMA created their first Interagency Hazard Mitigation Teams.
1992, FEMA administrator Witt makes mitigation a top priority.
2001, pendulum swings back to response.
2005, mitigation concern renewed after Katrina.

47

The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000
Public law 106-390
New programs and requirements (HMGP)
Increases funding
You must have plan in place to get HMGP (available post-disaster)
Fosters cooperation between state and locals
Rewards pre-disaster planning
Promotes sustainability
Source: FEMA #1 (p. 1, Forward)

The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000
Public Law 106-390
New programs and requirements (HMGP)
Increases funding
You must have plan in place to get HMGP (available post-disaster)
Fosters cooperation between state and locals
Rewards pre-disaster planning
Promotes sustainability
Source: FEMA #1 (p. 1, Forward)
48

Structural Mitigation
Structural mitigation overview:
The built environment
Dams, levees, blast resistant windows, concrete barriers, retrofit in seismic areas, tornado safe rooms, sandbagging, elevations, etc.
Creating a “planned” environment that can resist area hazards appropriately.
Goal: reduce loss of life and injuries as well as property damage.
Advantages: Reduces loss of life, injuries; saves properties, homes, businesses, schools; even creates recreational opportunities
Disadvantages: Cost; political will; lack of public attention until something happens

Structural Mitigation
Structural mitigation overview:
The built environment
Dams, levees, blast resistant windows, concrete barriers, retrofit in seismic areas, tornado safe rooms, sandbagging, elevations, etc.
Creating a “planned” environment that can resist area hazards appropriately.
Goal: reduce loss of life and injuries as well as property damage.
Advantages: Reduces loss of life, injuries; saves properties, homes, businesses, schools; even creates recreational opportunities
Disadvantages: Cost; political will; lack of public attention until something happens
49

Non-structural Mitigation
Non-structural mitigation overview:
The non-built environment
Land use planning efforts, building code enforcement, insurance, savings, public education, relocations/buyouts
Advantages: Reduces loss of life, injuries, property loss; less costly than structural measures
Disadvantages
May rely on the individual, many of whom have limited resources for mitigation; requires public attention to a low salient event: disasters

Non-structural Mitigation
Non-structural mitigation overview:
The non-built environment
Land use planning efforts, building code enforcement, insurance, savings, public education, relocations/buyouts
Advantages: Reduces loss of life, injuries, property loss; less costly than structural measures
Disadvantages
May rely on the individual, many of whom have limited resources for mitigation; requires public attention to a low salient event: disasters
50

Mitigation planning studies
The Haiti earthquake, measured as a 7.0 event was far less powerful than the 8.8 earthquake that rumbled through Chile the same year. Approximately 800 people died in Chile while more than 300,000 perished in Haiti. Considerable differences exist between the two nations, with the chief one being ability to afford and enforce mitigation. Population density in areas close to the quake also made a difference with the Haiti earthquake striking a highly populated capitol city.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE 2009) awarded the grade of “D” to our dams nation-wide. They define high hazard dams as those that would cause considerable risk to life and property. Thousands of such locations exist across the U.S. According to the ASCE, with the bulk of responsibility for maintenance and repair existing at the state government level. The ASCE estimates that billions of dollars annually would be needed for repairs. Similar grades were earned for bridges, ports, roads and other critical infrastructure.

Mitigation Planning Studies
The Haiti earthquake, measured as a 7.0 event was far less powerful than the 8.8 earthquake that rumbled through Chile the same year. Approximately 800 people died in Chile while more than 300,000 perished in Haiti. Considerable differences exist between the two nations, with the chief one being ability to afford and enforce mitigation. Population density in areas close to the quake also made a difference with the Haiti earthquake striking a highly populated capitol city.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE 2009) awarded the grade of “D” to our dams nation-wide. They define high hazard dams as those that would cause considerable risk to life and property. Thousands of such locations exist across the U.S. According to the ASCE, with the bulk of responsibility for maintenance and repair existing at the state government level. The ASCE estimates that billions of dollars annually would be needed for repairs. Similar grades were earned for bridges, ports, roads and other critical infrastructure.
51

Mitigation planning studies
Damage caused by earthquakes, hurricanes, flooding or other events can result in enormous losses.
Think also about the possible impacts of terrorism at a major sporting event or an explosion at a campus lab.
Initial steps:
Develop a mitigation planning team
Identify hazards and reduce risks
Prioritize action areas
U. C. Berkeley:
Conducted hazard identification and loss estimation for various levels
Focused on highest impact buildings and losses to the university
Concentrated funds to retrofit those buildings
Should save the university and the larger community considerably

Mitigation Planning Studies
Damage caused by earthquakes, hurricanes, flooding or other events can result in enormous losses.
Think also about the possible impacts of terrorism at a major sporting event or an explosion at a campus lab.
Initial steps:
Develop a mitigation planning team
Identify hazards and reduce risks
Prioritize action areas
U. C. Berkeley:
Conducted hazard identification and loss estimation for various levels
Focused on highest impact buildings and losses to the university
Concentrated funds to retrofit those buildings
Should save the university and the larger community considerably

52

Benefits of Mitigation Planning
(FEMA, in Godschalk 1991)
Save lives, fewer injuries
Less property damage
Minimize economic disruption
Less human impact
Reduce agricultural damage
Lifelines and infrastructure stabilized
Stress reduction, mental health
Legal liabilities
Many communities also put building codes into place and require developers, builders and homeowners to secure permits, go through inspections and comply with the code. Such rules exist to increase public safety though at times builders and developers (but not all) fight them as an added cost. Examples: hurricane clamps, elevations, underground utility lines.

Benefits of Mitigation Planning (FEMA, in Godschalk 1991)
Save lives, fewer injuries
Less property damage
Minimize economic disruption
Less human impact
Reduce agricultural damage
Lifelines and infrastructure stabilized
Stress reduction, mental health
Legal liabilities
Many communities also put building codes into place and require developers, builders and homeowners to secure permits, go through inspections and comply with the code. Such rules exist to increase public safety though at times builders and developers (but not all) fight them as an added cost. Examples: hurricane clamps, elevations, underground utility lines.
53

Mitigation planning
First steps
Find and involve a range of community partners such as those in government and from community groups as well as business leaders and local citizens.
Assess area hazards and the risk they may pose.
Establish action steps that need to be taken in priority order and set aside or secure resources.
Educate the public about the projects and their potential to offset future losses.
Outcomes
Built new partnerships that reduced risks
Created a grass-roots based solution to mitigation
Not funded during the next administration as not “cost effective”

Mitigation Planning
First steps
Find and involve a range of community partners such as those in government and from community groups as well as business leaders and local citizens.
Assess area hazards and the risk they may pose.
Establish action steps that need to be taken in priority order and set aside or secure resources.
Educate the public about the projects and their potential to offset future losses.
Outcomes
Built new partnerships that reduced risks
Created a grass-roots based solution to mitigation
Not funded during the next administration as not “cost effective”
54

Why Plan? (FEMA #1, Intro)
Post disaster pressure
With a plan in place you know what to do
With a plan in place, you have priorities
The planning process can bring people together, build partnerships
Allows a community to approach the problem(s) holistically, without the pressure of post-disaster crisis
Risk reduction requires ideas from all, it’s a complex process
Life safety!
Property safeguarding!

Why Plan? (FEMA #1, Intro)
Post disaster pressure
With a plan in place you know what to do
With a plan in place, you have priorities
The planning process can bring people together, build partnerships
Allows a community to approach the problem(s) holistically, without the pressure of post-disaster crisis
Risk reduction requires ideas from all, it’s a complex process
Life safety!
Property safeguarding!
55

Value of Mitigation Planning:
The Missouri Buyout (FEMA 2002)

Value of Mitigation Planning: The Missouri Buyout
56

The Hazard Mitigation Process
(FEMA#1, Forward)
Organize resources
Interested members
Technical expertise
Assess risks
What are the hazards?
What are the consequences?
Develop a mitigation plan
What are your priorities?
Implement the plan and monitor progress

The Hazard Mitigation Process (FEMA#1, Foreward)
Organize resources
Interested members
Technical expertise
Assess risks
What are the hazards?
What are the consequences?
Develop a mitigation plan
What are your priorities?
Implement the plan and monitor progress
57

Build Support (FEMA #1, 1-12)
State government
Federal government
Private sector
Citizens
Academic institutions
A powerful champion
Link to other planning
What are some good strategies for getting started?
Hold a Kickoff meeting
Set a Regular schedule
Make Assignments
Establish Goals
Use Timelines
Resources:
Photographs can be found at www.photolibrary.fema.gov including ones used in this chapter. Please be sure to note their citation preferences.

Build Support (FEMA #1, 1-12)
State government
Federal government
Private sector
Citizens
Academic institutions
A powerful champion
Link to other planning
What are some good strategies for getting started?
Hold a Kickoff meeting
Set a Regular schedule
Make Assignments
Establish Goals
Use Timelines
Resources: Photographs can be found at www.photolibrary.fema.gov including ones used in this chapter. Please be sure to note their citation preferences.

58

Student interactivity exercises

Write a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th edition format answering the following question:
Why does it take policies and presidential orders to influence mitigation?
Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th edition format as well.

Student Interactivity Exercises
Write a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th edition format answering the following questions:
Why does it take policies and presidential orders to influence mitigation?
Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th edition format as well.
59

Additional resources
FEMA planning resources: http://www.Fema.Gov/emergency/disasterhousing/planning_resources.Shtm
Comprehensive preparedness guide 101: http://www.Fema.Gov/pdf/about/divisions/npd/CPG_101_V2.Pdf.
National response framework resource center: http://www.Fema.Gov/emergency

Additional Resources
FEMA planning resources: http://www.Fema.Gov/emergency/disasterhousing/planning_resources.Shtm
Comprehensive preparedness guide 101: http://www.Fema.Gov/pdf/about/divisions/npd/CPG_101_V2.Pdf.
National response framework resource center: http://www.Fema.Gov/emergency
60

Module Three Exercises

Student Interactivity Exercises: Module Three

Instructions:

Please note that the lecture provides detail important to the successful completion of the Student Interactivity Exercises for this module. Please be sure to review the audio lecture prior to completing these exercises.

In order to fully complete the exercises, please do the following:

(1) Read the question carefully.

(2) Identify the major concepts related to the question from the textbook (the lectures are very helpful for this).

(3) Answer the questions fully, using concepts and terminology from the textbook relevant to the question.

(4) Answer all parts of the questions.

(5) Cite your sources using APA formatting using

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/

(6) Put all answers in your own words.

If you have questions at any time regarding the questions, please contact your instructor right away. Thank you!

Student Interactivity Questions for all Chapters in the Module [numbers correspond to slide numbers in lecture]:

· Your Student Interactivity Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document, and should be grammatically correct, with APA formatting used.

· All research used to complete this assignment needs to be cited using APA citation format.

[15]

· Emergency Alert System Exercise: Go to:

http://www.Training.Fema.Gov/is/courseoverview.Aspx?Code=is-248

and take the

interactive web based course

– IS-0248 Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS) for the American Public, once completed take the final quiz and forward the email of the results and certificate to the instructor.

· In a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th Edition format answer the following questions from Chapter 2: (1) Explain why disaster planners need to focus on the social aspects of disasters as much if not more than the physical impact of disasters. (2) Distinguish between structural and non-structural mitigation and give examples of each.

· Your exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th Edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th Edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th Edition format as well.

[25]

· In a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th Edition format answer the following questions from Chapter 5:

· Describe three basic ethical guidelines for the practice of emergency management and why they add to the credibility of the profession.

· Your exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th Edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th Edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th Edition format as well.

[43]

· Write a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th edition format answering the following questions:

· Distinguish between the levels of preparedness for individual, businesses and the community and discuss why each are lacking in preparedness.

·

Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th edition format as well.

[44]

· FEMA Computer Based Training: Lesson 5 – Emergency Operations Plan

· Once you have completed a lesson, you are required to take a screenshot of the “lessons list” and paste it onto the final pages of your Student Interactivity Exercises following the references page (if used). You must paste the screenshot at the end of the Student Interactivity Exercises as proof that the lesson has been completed. There should be a checkmark next to the completed lesson. Failure to do so will result in the loss of the points associated with the FEMA Training.

[59]

· Write a one page paper in essay format using APA 6th edition format answering the following questions:

· Why does it take policies and presidential orders to influence mitigation?

Exercises for this module should be submitted in one document and should be grammatically correct, with the correct spelling using the APA 6th edition format. Each exercise should be a separate page in your document; all work will be submitted in one file. When you complete one exercise, start the next exercise on the next page. You also need to have a cover sheet and references page using APA 6th edition format; the body of the paper needs to be in APA 6th edition format as well.

ERM 1200 Introduction to Emergency Management 2

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