Bribery is an age-old social scourge that found in all societies and its dangers are affecting the individual, society and the state alike. It is considered a corrupt crime and if it managed to spread into the body of society, it corrupts all aspects that society. Bribery, as defined by the scholars, is the trafficking of a job, through the deviation of the employees in the performance of their work which is in the public interest, in order to achieve (their personal interest) through the illegal gain of the job . In fact, the spread of bribery weakens the confidence of the community members in the integrity of the public authority, the violation of equality among citizens and provoking hatred and antagonism. The impact of bribery is not limited to social and moral matters, but extends to the political and economic level of the state, so all government laws criminalize bribery in all its forms and protect its government agencies from this deadly poison. Moreover, the bribery does not stop at obtaining money or benefit, but it goes to beyond that such as getting the position or the work not deserved by employee, which leads to waste of time, energy and competencies, as well as the weakening of production, which affects the economy of the nation.
Why does bribery exist in organizations?
First: Political reasons; it is known that bribery is a common disease in most political systems. It is not limited to developing countries, but it practiced in developed societies, albeit at a lower rate. In other words, the more urbanization and progress in the country, the less the deviation. The greater the backwardness and ignorance, the greater the deviation in all its colors and images in the state. The rate of bribery is high in political systems that lack democracy, transparency, and accountability. Its employees do not have freedom of expression, and there are no free media outlets capable of hiding facts and showing corruption. It also helps to spread the bribery within the weakness of the judiciary, which seems to have lost its independence from the legislative and executive branches, which leads to lows that do not apply to everyone, and that are people above the law according to their political and administrative positions.
Second, administrative reason; many administrative departments suffer from the spread of the phenomenon of bribery, due to many reasons, the most important of which is the weakness of administrative procedures through the vagueness of laws and regulations in governmental organizations and agencies, the existence of Red tape, bureaucracy, and nepotism. In addition, weak control and lack of effectiveness and lack of more qualified cadres, and failure to place the appropriate person in the appropriate place that leads to the exploitation of the position to reach higher positions and win the privileges that he / she is not worthy of .
Third, economic reasons, the economic factor is one of the most important factors leading to the spread of bribery, due to many reasons: low standard of living and income level of the employee opposed to the continuous rise in the cost of living. To clarify, sometimes employees with little income, that are the victims of this dilemma because of the urgent need for money, are often forced to commit this crime to spend their financial needs, which they cannot perform due to low their wages. Moreover, poor distribution of national income, where some people earn a large income, some of them earn little income, and others may not get any income at all leads to the social division and increases the level of class division, where the rich become richer. The poor become poorer which generates hatred, and they express their feeling by taking bribes from the rich.
Fourth the social reasons; tribal affiliations, partisan and religious relations and the relation of blood make the employees offers their own interests on the public interest.
Historical and societal context:
The crime of bribery been known since ancient time unit now and in all fields. We have heard many stories about those presidents, scientists and businesspersons who have ignored laws and regulations by using bribery to achieve certain goals in order to do their best for their country or work.
In societies, we can see the bribery in areas of work depending on the organization’s status, such as rules and regulations, duties and responsibilities, and employee relationships with clients. To clarify that, we can see the bribery in several forms including, the gifts provided to officials with positions getting closer to them and taking advantage of their positions. Bribery can be in criminal investigations, accidents or other and the investigators will be lenient in investigating. Because of the bribe provided them. Bribery is in the jobs and competitions and succeeds or employs those who offer bribes even if they do not deserve them.
In October 2011, two US Army Corps of Engineers employees arrested and charged with fraud for taking kickbacks According to the US Attorney for the District of Columbia, the participants in the scheme nearly steered $ 1 billion in government contracts to preferred companies. The participants the fraud pile over $ 30 million in government money through fictitious invoices estimated at over $ 20 million. Kerry Khan and Michael Alexander accused of taking bribes from contractors in exchange for being awarded lucrative government contracts, and of inflating invoices to the government and skimming the difference. In addition, Cho advised paying over $ 17 million in bribes to Khan and about $ 1 million to Alexander to win and keep government contracts for Nova Datacom. Cho also paid $ 700,000 in kickbacks to Babb to facilitate the processing of Nova Datacom’s invoices. (Wilber, 2011)
Alcatel Lucent forced to pay more than $137 million to because it paid millions of dollars in bribes to foreign officials to win business in Latin America and Asia such as Taiwan, Costa Rica, Malaysia , and Honduras to win or keep contracts worth tens of millions of dollars, the Securities and Exchange Commission and Justice Department said. Between December 2001 and June 2006, the company used consultants who funneled more than $8 million in bribes to officials, and Alcatel improperly hired third-party agents in countries like Nigeria to help win deals, authorities said. Overall, the company posted a profit of about $ 48.1 million due to illegal payments. Its staff also directed fraudulent advisers to give gifts and payments to foreign government officials for in order win them illegally. Alcatel charged with two counts of violating the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and entered into a deferred prosecution agreement. Three of its subsidiaries agreed to plead guilty to one count each of conspiracy to violate the anti-bribery law. (SEC Charges Alcatel-Lucent with FCPA Violations, 2010)
How bribery can be controlled and eliminated
Through the above, we see that bribery has a negative impact on aspects of life, so all members of society and the government must cooperate in eliminating it in all its aspects:
First: The Political Side:
1. The need to create a strong independent anti-bribery body to ensure that senior and political officials are a good role model in their professional behavior, so that this behavior reflected in the occupants of all state functions.
2. The need to achieve democracy, equality, and equal opportunities between citizens and workers.
3. Freedom of the press, expression and opinion in order to exercise their supervision role to expose corruption and bribery through free media.
4. The need to achieve the principle of independence of the judicial and work to provide the appropriate environment for judges to ensure their independence and impartiality.
Second: Administrative side:
Through the following:
1. Employees with responsibilities should be appointed as a role model for those of the lowest degree in the career ladder and to exercise their oversight role with all honesty and credibility on their subordinates.
2. Put the right man in the right place
The selection and appointment of the job must be on employee’s competency, ability, and skills, not based on mediation, nepotism and bribery.
3. Apply the principle of reward and punishment, and apply the principle of “Where did you get this”.
Third: The economic aspect:
Anti-bribery in the economic sphere carried out through:
1. Improving the economic situation of staff.
As I mentioned earlier, the most important causes of bribery are the low wages that are not commensurate with the requirements of living and high prices. Therefore, there increase must be employee’s wages continuously as well as an improvement in the standard of living, so that the provision of decent living requirements to prevent the justification of bribery.
2. Equitable distribution of national income and wealth to reduce class inequality in society through a fair tax policy.
3. Development of economic regulations and laws:
In order to ensure the creation of an investment climate conducive to the advancement of the national economy.
Fourth: Social aspect:
Anti-bribery carried out through:
1. Educating the members of society on ethical principles by planting the seeds of good morals and noble principals in the hearts of citizens.
2. Improving public awareness:
One of the reasons for reducing the issue of bribery in society is educating members of society about what is bribery, what are the dangers that bribery can cause to the state and society. Encourage employee’s loyalty and devotion to the organizations that they work.
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