BUS 610 University of Miami Persuasion Argument Problem Diagnosis Discussion

    • Revise the article according to the teacher’s comments
    • First, we will discuss problem diagnosis analysis and arguments and why they are important.
    • Then we will discuss “DRW Technologies” (Harvard case) as preparation for the third individual writing assignment.
    • After we discuss the “DRW Technologies” case, you can start work in class on the assignment below.
    • See the link below to submit the assignment. The link includes the due date.

    DRW Writing Assignment

    You are Debby Lopez.

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    Edward Claiborne

    , the main character of “DRW Technologies” and Lopez’s boss, has sent you an email (see below). Please write a response to it. Remember that Claiborne is probably upset and, privately, worried. Write the assignment as a memo to Claiborne. Word limit: 1,000.

    Claiborne’s Email to Debby:

    To: DebbyFrom: EdwardSubject: Approval of plant contracts

    It has been two weeks since I informed the procurement managers in the plants about the new contract approval process. I have not received any contracts for approval. Not one!

    We know that most of our 21 plants sign contracts over $250,000 at least several times a month and no doubt with greater frequency now because of the large backlog. Furthermore, our plants do not keep large inventories of raw materials on hand and must be continually resupplied when they are working at full capacity. It is in practical terms impossible that not one of our many plants has had a contract over the threshold in the last two weeks.

    Some of the messages I received from the procurement managers in response to my email announcing the policy were noncommittal. I did not like that type of response, but I was prepared for some hesitation. I was not prepared to have all of the managers ignore the policy. It is possible that some plants might not want to start complying with the policy immediately. However, I have not received a single email message or phone call from the plants requesting an extension before implementing it.

    I am at a loss to understand the failure to comply with the policy. I would like your opinion on the reasons why the procurement managers are not complying. I do not want speculation; please provide evidence for your opinions. Also, suggest what you think I should do about the situation. It would be helpful to have both short-term and long-term steps.

    Edward Claiborne

    Vice President, Procurement DRW Technologies

    Name the document file as follows: [Your FIRST name]-DRW Technologies.doc

    Also include your name at the top of the document!

    EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR “DRW TECHNOLOGIES” ASSIGNMENT

    • Have you stated the problem?
    • Have you identified plausible causes?
    • Have you argued the causes convincingly using logic and evidence?
    • Do you use emotion to help persuade the reader?
    • Is the organization of the memo easy for a reader to follow, and is your writingclear, correct, and concise?

    Required Reading (books, articles, cases):

    • “DRW Technologies” case (use the link to HBS Publishing on Blackboard–remember, it’s at the top of this page!)

    Required Reading on Blackboard:

    • Example of a Problem Diagnosis Argument
    • Handout: Problem Diagnosis Argument Template

    610: COMMUNICATING FOR CAREER SUCCESS
    WRITING OR PRESENTING A PROBLEM DIAGNOSIS ARGUMENT
    The simple template on the next page helps you organize a problem diagnosis argument. The
    focus of this type of argument is defining a problem and identifying and proving its causes. You
    should first define the problem you are diagnosing. If you don’t do that, your argument of
    causes will not be persuasive because the audience won’t know what you are diagnosing (and
    you may not be certain of that either!) Sometimes you and members of your audience may
    disagree on what the problem is. In that situation, you may have to argue your problem
    definition.
    Your diagnosis identifies the major causes of the problem and then proves each one with
    evidence. The proof shows how each cause contributes to the problem. Arrange the causes in
    order of importance, from most important to least.
    How do you identify causes in a situation and compile evidence about them? You should use
    whatever specialized analytical tools are available that are relevant to the situation. For
    example, there are a large number of business disciplines that have concepts, frameworks, and
    quantitative tools that can be used to investigate the causes of a problem. Leadership has a
    variety of models and concepts that can be helpful for a diagnosis of why a transition from one
    leader to another was disastrous for the organization. When applied to relevant situations,
    specialized analytical tools help you see and understand things you would miss if you were only
    using intuition or past experience.
    Problem Diagnosis Argument Template
    Definition of
    problem
    Summary of
    major causes
    Argument
    Cause 1
    a.
    b.
    c.
    Cause 2
    a.
    b.
    c.
    Cause 3
    a.
    b.
    c.
    Action Steps (actions to mitigate the problem)
    Step 1
    Step 2
    Step 3
    Note: the choice of three pieces of evidence per cause is arbitrary–up to a point. You will likely have more
    than three pieces of evidence to prove a cause. However, one or two pieces of evidence could be too few to
    be persuasive.
    Note: the three action steps are arbitrary. The number of action steps depends on the nature of the problem
    and time needed to solve it.
    THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS IN TURKEY
    By Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan
    [Statement of the problem–>] The Turkish lira has lost more than 40 percent of its value
    against the dollar since the start of 2018, the country’s debt has been downgraded, and experts
    are predicting a recession in 2019. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has blamed the crisis on
    western countries and the United States in particular. [Statement of causes–>] But the
    combustible conditions are the result of an unsustainable credit boom and overborrowing. The
    Turkish crisis is a textbook example of an emerging market crisis. It did not come about because
    of the United States, but it has been made worse by the political fight between Presidents
    Erdogan and Trump.
    Credit Boom
    [Statement of cause–>]Turkey had a large credit boom over the last decade financed with
    capital from abroad. The Turkish government has kept monetary policy loose, allowing the
    economy to grow steadily but also failing to keep inflation in check. With annual inflation at 16
    percent, the Turkish lira has been losing value with respect to foreign currencies and raising
    investor concerns. The lira began 2018 at about 3.8 per dollar and by April it had depreciated to
    4 lira to the dollar. In August it began to plummet in value (see chart).
    Borrowing
    [Statement of cause–>]A key macroeconomic vulnerability in Turkey is private-sector shortterm borrowing in U.S. dollars. About 60 percent of the corporate sector debt in Turkey was in
    foreign currency in 2013, which is particularly risky for sectors such as construction whose
    earnings are in Turkish liras. About 70 percent of the construction sector’s debt is in foreign
    currency and for manufacturing it is 50 percent.
    1
    The vulnerability of Turkish companies makes lenders less willing to roll over their debt. Also,
    the rise in interest rates in the United States and Europe and the prospect for even higher
    interest rates have made emerging market debt less attractive than it had been when interest
    rates in rich countries were rock bottom.
    [Statement of action to fix problem–>]A standard first response to this type of crisis is that the
    central bank raises interest rates. Central banks can attempt to stem the outflow of money and
    keep the currency from plummeting by raising interest rates, which makes domestic debt more
    attractive. This also has the advantage of demonstrating the independence of the central bank,
    giving investors confidence that the currency will not continue to fall. But the central bank of
    Turkey has not acted. Political pressure might mean that the bank finds it difficult to take
    measures to stem the collapse of the lira, a precondition to the resolution of the crisis.
    The crisis could spread to other potentially vulnerable emerging markets that are borrowing
    heavily from abroad, especially if the borrowing is in foreign currency and inflation is high.
    There is the possibility that the Turkish economic crisis has an impact on Europe as well since
    many European banks have lent to Turkish banks and companies.
    Stemming the Crisis
    At this point, raising interest rates might not be enough if confidence in the Turkish economy
    cannot be regained. The pivotal role that Turkey has played in the refugee crisis introduces
    another set of concerns, since Europe cannot afford to have an unstable Turkey in its backyard.
    The United States, while more insulated from the economic fallout of a Turkish crisis, will face
    political pressures if the country’s troubles cause it to draw closer to Russia and introduce a
    new source of economic and political tension in a volatile region.
    Adapted from EconoFact (https://econofact.org/the-financial-and-economic-crisis-in-turkey)
    2
    1
    Problems in the Contract Approval process
    THIS IS A RESEARCH PAPER, WHICH I EXPLICITLY SAID I DID NOT WANT. I
    HAVE NO DOUBT YOU SPENT TIME ON DOING RESEARCH ON THE TOPIC, AND
    YOU WRITE CLEARLY. BUT YOU COMPLETELY FAIL TO DEAL WITH THE
    ISSUES IN THE CASE. YOU MAKE NO ATTEMPT TO RELATE THE FACTS IN THE
    CASE TO THE FAILURE OF THE CONTRACT APPROVAL PROCESS. I DON’T
    UNDERSTAND WHY.
    7/15
    By Debby Lopez
    Subject to human factors, the company’s procurement process might be affected by
    the contract policy approval process problems. When people are tasked to create or modify
    policies into a document, they face a risk of potentially making errors or failing to meet legal
    requirements. Most contract approval-related problems WE AREN’T LOOKING FOR
    GENERALITIES. WE ARE TRYING TO FIND OUT WHAT WENT WRONG IN THIS
    PARTICULAR CASE. may be caused by inconsistencies, time wastage, ignorance,
    complicated channels of communication, and lack of technology. The following arguments
    and clauses may have caused clear evidence problems in the approval process.
    Inconsistent formats
    Considering the number of contracts companies receive each month, there is a
    possibility that the contract policy does not meet formats requirements for approval.
    (McNamara & Sepasgozar, 2020). There is a possibility that individuals would make errors in
    their formats with every new contract being drafted. Any changes in formats may cause
    2
    inconsistencies through other supporting documents during submissions. Inconsistent formats
    would cause the cancellation of the agreement, but it will also cause a backlog in other
    operations within the company. THERE IS NO EVIDENCE IN THE CASE TO SUPPORT
    THIS. IT IS NOT FACT-BASED REASONING.
    The best way to overcome this problem is by automizing the tendering process where
    suppliers can access requests in the comfort of their offices. Contract management systems
    enable the organization to simplify its operations by sharing information with its managers
    and suppliers and accessing resources. The managers can access formats and modifications to
    contract policies with automated systems without wasting time.
    Lags due to email communication
    While big organizations are prey to the public because of employment opportunities
    NO IDEA WHAT YOU MEAN, tender application requests, complaints, and
    communication, the chances of replies get limited (Maemura et al., 2018). According to
    previous research, receiving replies decreases after 48 hours as messages are delivered to
    recipients. For the same reason, managers may fail to get notifications or forget to reply,
    causing backlogs in communication. Lags due to unchecked emails have caused many delays
    in most departments’ operations, causing stall operations.
    The company should see the importance of contract management systems to ease
    contract approval processes and save time to control this problem. Contract management
    systems are programmed to automatically remind the procurement managers of updates,
    reviews, and deadlines. For example, when emails were communicated to the procurement
    managers, no manager gave the right feedback consistent with Edward’s expectations. There
    3
    would be no need for a manager or head of department to check their emails with automated
    processes each time communication is made.
    Problems with version changes
    As the contract policy is moved around between the C.E.O and the procurement
    managers, there is a risk of maintaining the integrity of the guidelines. As different parties
    handle this document, the original intention would be lost in confusion between the procuring
    office and the manager (Maemura et al., 2018). Everyone would want to recommend their
    ideas to the paper, causing a misunderstanding between the two parties. The most appropriate
    way to deal with this conflict is to involve all departments in drafting the contact policy
    before forwarding them.
    A secure, centralized system should be implemented to control problems related to
    manipulating policies (Maemura et al., 2018). A centralized scheme may be in the form of a
    committee or an online platform where participants would share their ideas. Parties would
    also review and comment on errors and amendments and make necessary changes before the
    document is drafted for signing. D.R.W. Technologies company lacks this kind of system,
    which would act as a space for both the managers and the C.E.O to interact. When
    committees are formulated to deal with modifications, creations, and revisions, it is easier to
    develop agreements than through email communication.
    Slowdowns in Signatures
    Signing a document is evidence that one agrees with a policy or statements in a
    document made by individuals or institutions. Any contract policy cannot be approved
    without signatures from all the parties subject to agreements in the paper. Despite being eager
    to accomplish a deal to resume stalled operations, all the parties should agree and follow the
    4
    legal process. The guidelines assigned for the signing process make it difficult for parties to
    make timely decisions.
    To eliminate slowdowns in the signing process, the organization should develop longterm plans like e-signatures to minimize time wastage (Srivastava, 2012). The e-signature
    software is secure and legally binding to the parties under the electronic signature in the
    Global and National Commerce A.C.T. Electronic signing might be essential when parties are
    far from each other. Technological solutions have become the most preferred option while
    minimizing time wastage in operations.
    Poor communication channels
    Communication is an essential factor in a company’s operations where vital
    information can be shared amongst stakeholders. The organization must develop a proper
    channel that could stimulate immediate responses for good communication. Communication
    done through email and subordinates so that you can reach another stakeholder or colleague
    is an ineffective means of communication. Emails can be unread for days or come with
    technical problems that challenge managers, which may be difficult for them to solve. This
    challenge may make it difficult for stakeholders to understand each other since they are only
    limited to what is written in the texts, sometimes with errors.
    Face to face is the most efficient communication channel between two stakeholders
    while formulating contract policy changes. Face-to-face communication creates a wide range
    of communication options because of immediate feedback and exposure to non-verbal
    communication. The contract process policy changes on face-to-face communication limit the
    chances of confusion as it increases the perception of both parties when they encounter
    problems.
    5
    The contract policy approval process faces many challenges in its implementation due
    to delays in replies, technological challenges, and wrong communication channels. The
    contract approval process is mostly challenged by time wastage and poor communication
    skills between stakeholders. For critical operations to run smoothly, there needs to be a
    constant channel that stakeholders would use to communicate changes. Implementation of
    contract management systems is important to solve the technological problems managers may
    face while making necessary changes in contacts. Long-term steps in managing problems are
    adopting computerized systems, better communication channels, and centralized management
    systems.
    Outline for Problems in the Contract Approval process
    Introduction
    Subject to human factors, the company’s procurement process might be affected by the
    contract policy approval process problems.
    Most contract approval-related problems may be caused by inconsistencies, time wastage,
    ignorance, complicated channels of communication, and lack of technology.
    Body
    Paragraph 1
    Considering the number of contracts companies receive each month, there is a possibility that
    the contract policy does not meet formats requirements for approval. (McNamara &
    Sepasgozar, 2020).
    There is a possibility that individuals would make errors in their formats with every new
    contract being drafted.
    Inconsistent formats would cause the cancellation of the agreement, but it will also cause a
    backlog in other operations within the company.
    Paragraph 2
    The best way to overcome this problem is by automizing the tendering process where
    suppliers can access requests in the comfort of their offices.
    The managers can access formats and modifications to contract policies with automated
    systems without wasting time.
    Paragraph 3
    While big organizations are prey to the public because of employment opportunities, tender
    application requests, complaints, and communication, the chances of replies get limited
    (Maemura et al., 2018).
    According to previous research, as messages are delivered to recipients, receiving replies
    decreases after 48 hours.
    Lags due to unchecked emails have caused many delays in most departments’ operations
    causing stalled operations.
    Paragraph 4
    The company should see the importance of contract management systems to ease contract
    approval processes and save time to control this problem.
    Contract management systems are programmed to automatically remind the procurement
    managers of updates, reviews and deadlines.
    There would be no need for a manager or head of department to check their emails with
    automated processes each time communication is made.
    Paragraph 5
    As the contract policy is moved around between the C.E.O and the procurement managers,
    there is a risk of maintaining the integrity of the guidelines.
    As different parties handle this document, the original intention would be lost in confusion
    between the procuring office and the manager (Maemura et al., 2018).
    The most appropriate way to deal with this conflict is to involve all departments in drafting
    the contact policy before forwarding them.
    Paragraph 6
    As the contract policy is moved around between the C.E.O and the procurement managers,
    there is a risk of maintaining the integrity of the guidelines.
    As different parties handle this document, the original intention would be lost in confusion
    between the procuring office and the manager (Maemura et al., 2018).
    The most appropriate way to deal with this conflict is to involve all departments in drafting
    the contact policy before forwarding them.
    Paragraph 7
    A secure, centralized system should be implemented to control problems related to
    manipulating policies (Maemura et al., 2018).
    A centralized scheme may be in the form of a committee or an online platform where
    participants would share their ideas.
    When committees are formulated to deal with modifications, creations, and revisions, it is
    easier to develop agreements than through email communication.
    Paragraph 8
    Signing a document is evidence that one is in agreement with a policy or statements in a
    document made by individuals or institutions.
    Any contract policy cannot be approved without signatures from all the parties subject to
    agreements in the paper.
    The guidelines assigned for the signing process make it difficult for parties to make timely
    decisions.
    Paragraph 10
    To eliminate slowdowns in the signing process, the organization should develop long-term
    plans like e-signatures to minimize time wastage (Srivastava, 2012).
    The e-signature software is secure and legally binding to the parties under the electronic
    signature in the Global, and National Commerce A.C.T.
    Technological solutions have become the most preferred option while minimizing time
    wastage in operations.
    Paragraph 11
    Communication is an essential factor in a company’s operations where vital information can
    be shared amongst stakeholders.
    For good communication, the organization must develop a proper channel that could
    stimulate immediate responses.
    This challenge may make it difficult for stakeholders to understand each other since they are
    only limited to what is written in the texts, sometimes with errors.
    Paragraph 12
    Face to face is the most efficient communication channel between two stakeholders while
    formulating contract policy changes.
    Face to face communication creates a wide range of communication options because of
    immediate feedback and exposure to non-verbal communication.
    Face facing limits chances of confusion as it increases the perception of both parties when
    they encounter problems.
    Conclusion
    The contract policy approval process faces many challenges in its implementation due to
    delays in replies, technological challenges and wrong communication channels.
    The contract approval process is mostly challenged by time wastage and poor communication
    skills between stakeholders.
    Long-term steps in managing problems are adopting computerized systems, better
    communication channels, and centralized management systems.

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