Central State University Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Humor Questions

20.1 How are monologue presentations, guided discussions, and sales presentations alike and different? (LO 20-1)

20.2 What are the four modes for openers? (LO 20-2)

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20.3 What does maintaining eye contact and smiling do for a presentation? (LO 20-5

20.5 Why should you plan a strong close, rather than just saying, “Well, that’s it”? (LO 20-2

20.6 Why does an oral presentation have to be simpler than a written message to the same audience? (LO 20-2)

20.7 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using humor? (LO 20-2)

338 Unit Five Interpersonal Communication

Just before your presentation,
Consciously contract and then relax your muscles, starting
with your feet and calves and going up to your shoulders,
arms, and hands.
Take several deep breaths from your diaphragm.
During your presentation,
Pause and look at the audience before you begin speaking.
Concentrate on communicating well.
Use body energy in strong gestures and movement.
Convey a sense of caring to audience members by making
direct eye contact with them and by using a conversational style.
(LO 20-5)


Treat questions as opportunities to give more detailed infor-
mation than you had time to give in your presentation. Link
your answers to the points you made in your presentation.
(LO 20-6)
Repeat the question before you answer it if the audience
may not have heard it or if you want more time to think.
Rephrase hostile or biased questions before you answer them.
(LO 20-6)
The best group presentations result when the group writes a
very detailed outline, chooses points and examples, and cre-
ates visuals together. Then, within each point, voices trade off.
(LO 20-7)B

An oral presentation needs to be simpler than a written message
to the same audience. (LO 20-1)
In a monologue presentation, the speaker plans the presenta-
tion in advance and delivers it without deviation. In a guided
discussion, the speaker presents the questions or issues that
both speaker and audience have agreed on in advance. Rather
than functioning as an expert with all the answers, the speaker
serves as a facilitator to help the audience tap its own knowl-
edge. A sales presentation is a conversation using questions to
determine the buyer’s needs, probe objections, and gain provi-
sional and then final commitment to the purchase. (LO 20-1)

• Adapt your message to your audience’s beliefs, experience, and
interests. (LO 20-1)
Use the beginning and end of the presentation to interest the
audience and emphasize your key point. (LO 20-1)
Using visuals makes a speaker seem more prepared, more inter-
esting, and more persuasive. (LO 20-1)
Ways to open or close a presentation include using a star-
tling statement, narration or anecdote, question, or quotation.
(LO 20-2)


Summary of Learning Objectives
A good voice supports and enhances good content. To find
your best voice, focus on pitch, intonation, tempo, and volume.
Sound energetic and enthusiastic. (LO 20-3)
Use a direct pattern of organization. Put your strongest reason
first. (LO 20-4)

Limit your talk to three main points. Early in your talk-
perhaps immediately after your opener-provide an overview
of the main points you will make. Offer a clear signpost as you
come to each new point. A signpost is an explicit statement of
the point you have reached. (LO 20-4)

To calm your nerves as you prepare to give an oral presentation,
(LO 20-5)
• Be prepared. Analyze your audience, organize your thoughts,
prepare visual aids, practice your opener and close, check
out the arrangements.
Use only the amount of caffeine you normally use.
Avoid alcoholic beverages.



Relabel your nerves. Instead of saying, “I’m scared,” try
saying, “My adrenaline is up.” Adrenaline sharpens our
reflexes and helps us do our best.
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