Thesis Statement: The different forms of child labor exploitation or harmful labor have negative emotional, physical or mental impact on child laborers in the Philippines. I. Introduction Childhood is the most innocent stage in human life. It is the phase of life wherein a child is learning new things, fun-loving, free from all tensions and is the sweetheart of all family members. But this is only one side of the story. The other is full of tremendous problems and burdens. In this case, the innocent child is not the sweetheart of the family, instead, he/ she is an earning machine working the entire day n order to satisfy the needs and wants of his/ her family. This is what we call “Child labor. ” There are various causes and effects of child labor that could totally affect or even damage children’s lives. The consequences of child labor to a child can be numerous and crippling on his/ her physical, mental and emotional state. It can seriously hamper the well being of a child who is supposed to get a sound education and nutrition to develop into a healthy adult. ”Child labor is horrible. These children get hurt, maimed, even killed. And guess what? Most kids in schools don’t even care.
That is why we need to learn about it in school. To make a difference. ” It is important to speak about the practice of abusive and exploitative child labor in order for us to be aware of these cases. Although most of the child workers do get the privilege of education, most end up being dropouts and repeaters because they are not able to focus on their studies. By becoming aware of the consequences that the child workers might face from their situations, we shall become vigilant by fighting its cause and therefore contribute towards the goal of eliminating the child labor cases in our country. II. Analysis
A. Historical Background Child labor can be traced to the period of industrialization. It is believed that between 1780 and 1840, child exploitation was a foregone practice. It was common to find children working in factories, farms and mills. Some children started working as tourist guides; some worked as waiters or even set up small shops. Worst forms of child exploitation included military use of children and child prostitution. Families led lives which were manipulated by their employers. They would work for more than 72 hours a week for company owned amenities like goods and houses and for a small pay.
Many anti-child labor movements were organized and led by working women and middle class consumers. However, even today many cases of child labor in the Philippines are not registered due to different reasons. Although the country has made remarkable strides to stop child labor, it still exists. The fight is still ongoing. According to the International Labor Organization, the number of working children is increasing daily. Sad but true, children are still being exploited in sweatshops. B. Literature Review Children as a Source of Labor 1. Unpaid Household Work The most common unpaid work within the household and also ost common across all types of unpaid work was household work with activities such as cooking, laundry, ironing, cleaning and gardening. The researchers found out that three-fourths of the children under took household work. Parents of the children who work within the household work have their time to relax and parents appreciate this as there rest day. In this case, children usually learn their task from their parents or older siblings. 2. Children as Income Earning Assets From interviewing some labourers, the researchers found out that many of child workers do not even know about their salary.
Because parents or other relatives were the ones connive with the employer, mostly relative rather than the child workers are the recipient of financial remuneration. Even when the child workers receive the financial remuneration, many of them send the money to their parents and they would get little benefit. Although they know keeping some portion of the money with them will help in times of need. III. Child Labor in the Philippines A. Different Faces of Child Labor Child labor is an emotional issue, not only because many business is made large profit by exploiting children for extremely low wage but also ecause children were being deprived of education that would allow them to improve and make their life better. We have policies and programs that help the victims of child labor, however, it still couldn’t help the fact that it’s still growing until now, there is still argument dealing with child labor. Annually, the numbers of child labor victims is increasing. Working on a dangerous and hazardous job is the only way to help their family when it comes to expenses. Every shift, they face the most difficult trials in life. Everyday they experience loss of life, limb and innocence. Child labor victims are lso exposed to dirty jobs. Blacksmiths, tinsmiths, foundry work, glass factories, cotton and textile mills, coal mines and fields and child prostitution are some of the common jobs that young children are engage in. Being exposed to these dirty activities, children are prone to bacteria viruses so they have a higher possibility of getting sick they also experience many dangers when it comes to their job-child trafficking, especially for girls, often end up imprisoned in rooms, watched by arm guards, starve, beaten and rape by their own recruiters or captors. Children have to bear anything to survive their situation.
B. Reasons of its Rapid Growth Child labor has grown to be a topic of widespread debate. It has many favorable and unfavorable points of view. In any case, child labor should be destroyed as it is harmful to the health of the children, it is an obstacle to their education, and it denies them a happy childhood. There are reasons why this dilemma is growing rapidly. One of this is the children work to help pay off a loan incurred by the family. For instance, a parent trade their child for money or because it gives them a wealthy life in change. The children from poor families in developing countries cannot study.
Their parents cannot afford their school and study expenditures. Poor families are normally very large, and the bread earner is the male head who single-handedly cannot meet the needs of each member. Poverty hinders the children to do whatever they want. Every child has the right to the most basic of necessities in life like a healthy environment, formal education, and most importantly, a loving family to come home to. Parents are forced to send the little children into hazardous jobs for the reason of survival, even though they know it is wrong. Illiterate and ignorant parents do not understand the need for roper physical and emotional development of their child. They don’t pay enough attention to their responsibilities and that is why they don’t care about the education for their child. Adult unemployment and urbanization also causes child labor. Adults often find it difficult to find jobs because factory owners find it more beneficial to employ children at cheap rates. One of these examples is the garment factories. The industrial revolution has also a negative effect by giving rise to circumstances which encourages child labor. Sometimes multinationals prefer to employ child workers in developing countries because they could work long nd can pay in a small wage. C. Children’s Rights (Regarding Child Labor) The children’s right is categorized into three by a Canadian organization. The first group is the provision. It means that children should have the right to live and should receive their fundamental needs in life. It also convey that children must have an adequate home, right amount of food to eat, should be engaged in a good lifestyle, health care, education to learn and to play. Next is the protection. The child should enjoy his/her protection. The child should be given the opportunities and a right facility. They should be
Free from harm and abuse. Last is the participation. It signifies that the children should have the chance to join different programs and services that are accommodating to them. They also have the right to participate to other activities and facilities in their community. D. Number of Child Laborers The percentage of young people in Philippines between the age of five and seventeen is about 33 percent of its total population which comes to about 22. 4 million. This is a large number considering that Philippines is a young nation. Between the ages of 5 to 7 years, one in every six children has to work to arn a living and help support his or her family. This astounding fact tells us that around sixteen percent of young children in Philippines are working. Child Labor is prevalent in mining, production, farming, and deep sea fishing industries and many children are also working as domestic workers. Based on the 2000 survey of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and National Statistics Office (NSO) and studies by the Bacolod-based research group Center for Investigative Research and Multimedia Services (CIRMS), around four million or 16. 2 percent of the 24. 9 million Filipino children (aged five to 17 years) work.
This reflects a significant increase from the 1995 ILO and NSO surveys wherein 3. 6 million child workers were documented. The age group of 10-14 years accounted for 48 percent of the working children while the age group of 15-17 years accounted for 46 percent. There were more child male workers than child female workers. The gender ratio showed 173 male child workers for every 100 child female workers. Based on geographic distribution, about 70 percent child laborers were found in rural areas and only 30 percent in urban areas. Urban-based child workers were a little older than their rural counterparts: the average age of urban- ased child workers is 15 while the rural average age is 14. E. Working Hours The average number of working hours of children in productive activities was 28 per week. One-third of the children involve in productive activities for more than 35 hours per week. The intensity of work in productive activities was higher for boys(33 hours) than girls(26 hours). The survey also revealed that the highest proportion of children involve in these activities worked about 3-5 hours per day. IV. Impact of Child Labor in Children’s Lives A. Short-term Impact Most of the child workers studied were from poor families and ommunities, and this was reflected in their overall community health norm. Nevertheless, no significant differences in height and weight were obvious between working and non-working children from the same communities. Certain work situations were shown to affect the child workers’ health in specific ways. The hazards the children were exposed to were found to be place, work, and gender related. The NSO survey showed that about 30, 000 children had reported having suffered from work-related injuries/illnesses. Majority of these lived in the rural areas, especially in Region VII, ARMM, and Region X. Their most common njuries reported were cuts/wounds/punctures. Some illnesses/injuries reported were such that 3 in every 100 had to stop working and 50% had to temporarily stop working. Schistosomiasis, fatigue, backache, wounds, and over-exposure to the sun were related to agricultural work. Sleeplessness was reported in night fishing and garments manufacturing. Thypoid, gastro-enteritis, beriberi, respiratory ailments (TB, bronchitis and pneumonia), headaches, fever, coughs, dysentery, ruptured eardrums, and damaged auditory nerves were reported in deep sea diving. Fatal accidents such as drowning were reported in sea-related work.
In manufacturing, skin and respiratory illnesses; impairment of the nervous system due to chemicals; headaches; backaches; leg cramps; allergies; and eyestrain were reported. Sun over-exposure was reported in stonecraft work. Accidents in manufacturing were due to cuts, punctures, and bone mashing. In services, exposure to environmental hazards and road accidents in street trades, colds, cough, STDs for prostituted children, harassment and threats to the body and life were reported. The NSO reported that while boys suffered more from the effects of hazardous work, illnesses such as body aches/pains were more common among emales, and more females also contracted skin rashes/diseases. Other studies showed that since there were more girls found in prostitution, they were also more prone to STDs. B. Long-term Impact Child labor has huge array of effect on children. Some are see to affect them for a long period of time. When children don’t go to school and learn, the possibility of excelling in life is lessened because they might not know anything. They only have little knowledge. Hazardous jobs can also affect their health. Several conditions are very life threatening and can affect their life until hey grow up. They might acquire some diseases that is incurable and lasts for a long time. They might also get themselves in accidents that would totally injure them physically, mentally and emotionally. They might get used to it, making their mindset more mature, not thinking about their freedom as a child and making them brainwashed zombies. V. The Economic History of Child Labor A. Early Industrialization and the Employment of Children Children in the Philippines, especially those who belong to low- income families are bound to an early participation in economic activities. At very oung ages, they are trained to help in household chores and, for many whose parent’s income cannot cover the needs of their families, contribute to be a family worker. Hence by the time they reach adolescence, most of them are well versed with the realities of the Philippine labor market. Young as they are, working adolescents are highly subjected to abuse and exploitation as they engage themselves in a variety of work, under varying conditions. Those working on the streets or scavenging as well as those trapped in the prostitution industry are exposed to violence and to threats to their moral development and health.
Those engaged in domestic service are often isolated and may suffer physical and sexual abuse. Working adolescents in home based industries often work in poor, even unsafe conditions. Working adolescents can be found in practically all sectors of the economy. They cut across major occupational groups and cover a wide range of economic activities. In general, however, working male adolescents are concentrated in non-domestic occupations like wood working, fishing, hauling, scavenging and newspaper selling. On the other hand, working female adolescents are commonly into domestic work, sidewalk vending and in industries requiring anual dexterity, such as embroidery work in sewing. In rural areas, adolescents work for large plantations like vegetable and rice farms. Those in urban areas may be found in the retail trade and in services and small-scale manufacturing enterprises. Of those in the industry sector, majority are engaged in the manufacturing sub sector, while those in the services sector are mostly found in the personal services and trade sub sectors. B. The Child Labor Market 1. Supply of Child Workers As we know, human are one of the most abundant things in our planet. We can see humans of different races almost everywhere.
Children have higher ratio than adults, especially in the Philippines. So, there is no problem in finding children to train for work. Child workers are scattered everywhere. There are so many cases of child labor, either legal or illegal. In the Philippines, child workers are seen everywhere, even in the dangerous streets of Metro Manila. It seems that they have invaded this region. They are like ants because of their huge number. Some are vendors of certain things like toys, foods, service and other commodities. Our country seems to have an unlimited supply of child workers. Where all these children coming from?
Well, judging from biological aspects of the human race, they came from their parents after a night of love. There are only few ways of reducing these big numbers because it is a natural process and it is bad to fight nature. The only way to reduce it is through discipline. Now, we are having an unlimited supply of child workers. 2. Demand of Child Workers Why is there so many child workers on the road? Many people hire children because of the advantages they get. One of the reason is the child’s energy. Children seem to be energetic even though they are tired after a long day’s work.
We, costumers pity the children and because of that we buy from them. Syndicates like to hire children because of their charming look as well as their helpless look. So, if people would buy from them, they will just advertise and promote child workers. These had been a big demand for child workers because of these reasons. Children have a high demand in the market today because of their amazing qualities and capabilities. VI. Government Agencies and Laws A. Government Agencies 1. Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) The Dole has numerous programs whose goal is to reduce the incidence of child labor. Example of which are as follows: . Coordination of DOLE ad the International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO- IPEC). b. Studies such as the Gender Statistics on Labor and Employment (GSLE) generates data on working children c. The Philippine Program Against Child Labor d. Projects such as strengthening national capacities to support the Philippine program against child labor e. Partnership of DOLE with UNICEF 2. Department Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) DSWD as mandated by the national government has waged war against child labor. Programs such as the following were implemented: a. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s) b.
Regional Sub-committee for the welfare of children (RSCNC) which one sees and monitors the personality of local councils for the protection of children. c. DSWD- provided educational assistance, skills, training and livelihood assistance. 3. Philippine National police (PNP) The PNP is the enforcers of laws appertaining child labor. PNP started their crack down on “muro-ami” an illegal method of fishing that more often than not, exploits minors. B. Non- Government Agencies 1. Compassion Compassion is a child development center that sponsors children and provide them with food, shelter, education and health care as well as
Christian trainings. It is a Christian child advocacy ministry that releases children from spiritual, economic, social and physical poverty and encourage them to become responsible, fulfilled Christian adults. 2. Bantay Bata 163 This is a social welfare program of the ABS-CBN Foundation. It aims to protect disadvantaged and at risk children through a nationwide network of social service. Among these services, the national emergency hotline”163” which allows people to call and report incidence of child abuse exploitation and neglect. C. Laws 1. RA 9231 A. special protection of children against child abuse, exploitation nd discrimination. Act No. 1-08-employer/ youth aged 15 to less than 18 years old. 2. RA 9208 An act to institute police to eliminate by picking in person especially women and children, establishing the necessary institutional mechanism for the protection and support for trafficked persons, providing penalties for its violation. VII. Summary This research study is all about he current situation of child labor here in the Philippines. Our research discusses the factors affecting child labor as well as the child. It also touches certain topics that would help the authorities to come up with a trategic plan to decrease or might eliminate the presence of child labor in our country. This research exposed what might have been the origin of child labor in the Philippines. The economic status of our country with regards to the issue of child labor is also included. It tackles the effect of early exposure to drudgery in children, parents and in the country. This research also contains the result of our recent interview/ survey to the public. The questionnaire includes a variety of questions about their background, jobs, family, and the like. The results also provide proof that our country is in a ituation where in the issue, child labor, is almost conquering us. This research is bound together with the statistics of child workers. This states the different way’s a child could work. Laws, government and non-government agencies governing over child labor is also included within this research. The opinions of the researchers are also stated in this research. The stand of the researchers in the issue is also indicated. The outcome of the different actions of the agencies involved is stated and proven by the researchers. The whole research is mainly about the current situation and effects of child labor to the Philippines and he actual effects of it to the children. VIII. Conclusion On the whole, the decade had brought forth a rich and comprehensive body of literature on child labor. These studies cover the more or less in-depth picture of child workers’ personal characteristics. Our study recounts the historical experience of child labor in the Philippines and shows that children’s labor had been utilized and exploited in the Philippines. Child labor is a human right issue of immense sensitivity. To sum up, Philippines consider it highly inappropriate when a child below 18 years of age is put to work. People should be prohibited from hiring children.
Advocacy to eliminate child labor is not just the simple reduction of child labor in the work place. It is important to realize that there is not one simple answer to this vastly complicated issue. Hazardous work has been deemed as one of the worst forms of child labor and is therefore in need of immediate abolition. ”Every child deserves a reason to laugh. Child laborers live and work in such poor conditions that their lips would probably crack if they smile. ” The elimination of child labor must pay attention to the conditions that have created the poverty which has spawned child labor. The link between the forces hat have created poverty and the factors leading to child labor go beyond community and national boundaries, and must be understood,, articulated and engaged. Let us all do what we can now, to eliminate child labor by advocating and ensuring that communities will survive, so that children today and in the future can start to take back their childhood. IX. Recommendations After completing this research we’ve finally come to this part. Based on the outcome of our research, we recommend that the parents of the child laborers should strive harder in order to sustain their family needs because this is one of the ajor reasons why children work in spite their young age. The government should also pay attention and make more laws that penalize and criminalize parents and employers who are involved in this issue because nowadays we only have about 7 laws regarding this issue, which shows that it still needs improvement. The laws also have some flows which night lead to injustice. The children should also be careful in working because there are lots of things that could happen to them. They should also fight for their rights because sometimes, there are severely violated by their parents/ employers. Bibliography Books
Del Rosario, Rosario and Melinda Bonga. (2000) Child Labor in the Philippines: A Review of Selected Studies and Policy Papers Manila, Philippines Adolescents in the Labor Force Institute for Labor Studies- Dep of Labor and Employment Manila, Philippines Websites http://international. uiowa. edu/centars/human-rights/documents/hazardous_child_labor. pdf http://EzineArticles. com/? expert=ThesaSambas www. [email protected] gov. ph www. dole. gov. ph Dedication We highly dedicate this research works to all child workers and government agencies that are concerned in child labor cases in our country. It is known to s that there is a rapid growth of child workers who are supposed to be in the environment of a classroom rather than roaming the streets and risking every chance, time and time again, to earn money. It is with this thought in mind that we became more determined to continue our research study in order for the government to begin putting an end to child labor in the Philippines. Our thanks to all, who generously contributed their insights. Without their help, this research paper would never have been possible. -The Researchers Acknowledgement We, the aesthetic metamorphosis group, would like to express our deepest ppreciation to our very own, Miss Maria Purificacion R. Razon, who introduced us the real essence of being a student by making it possible for us to do our very first research paper. The entire team owes a debt of gratitude to a number of individuals who ably assisted in the development of this research. We would like to recognize Mr. Edwin Estioco, our consultant and reviser, for his helpful insights, advise, inspiration and selfless voluntary service to the successful completion of this project. We also extend our enormous appreciation to Mr. Exxon Susmirano, DSWD Social worker, Mrs. Minie
Averilia, DOLE Worker and KGWD Ray Fajardo of Brgy. Kamuning, for providing us their truthful answers to our survey questions. We also are grateful to our families. Their support and guidance has enabled us to function effectively throughout the entire project period. And last, but never least, we honor our Almighty God who served as our team leader and thoughtful guide and for the unwavering support which make it possible for us to develop this research paper. -The Researchers EARLY EXPOSURE OF POOR FILIPINO CHILDREN IN DRUDGERY A Research Paper Presented to The Class of Miss Maria Purificacion R.
Razon Don Alejandro Roces Sr. Science-Technology High School In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Subject English IV By Amelia Fermia Carlos Leniel Origenes Rolyn Claire Maun IV-Gold Jenella Christine Palomar Sharmina Monic Allarde Kevin Baybay IV-Aluminum Emmanuel Caperal IV-Vanadium December 13, 2010 Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Analysis A. Historical background B. Literature review 1. Children as a source of labor a. Unpaid household work b. Children as income earning assets III. Child labor in the Philippines A. Different faces of child labor B. Reasons of its rapid growth C.
Children’s rights (regarding child labor) D. Number of child laborers E. Working hours IV. Impact of child labor in children’s lives A. Short-term impact B. Long-term impact V. The Economic history of child labor A. Early industrialization and the employment of children B. The Child labor market 1. Supply of child workers 2. Demand of child workers VI. Government agencies and laws A. Government agencies 1. Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) 2. Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) 3. Philippine National Police (PNP) B. Non-government agencies 1. Compassion 2. Bantay Bata 163 C.
Laws 1. RA 9231 2. RA 9208 VII. Summary VIII. Conclusion IX. Recommendations [pic] A. Child Laborers We, the researchers, conducted an interview to 12 child laborers based on their personal experiences in engaging work activities. The age of the one we interviewed are ranging to 10-16 years old. Almost half of the interviewee is a vendor, second is the ending, and last are the junk trader, eye optomatrist and a dubber which are the least. As the result of the survey, almost all the child laborers said that they need to work to help their family’s survival. For the remaining, they work because they need oney for their school allowances. After the interview, it appears that child laborer had been working from the past 1-3 years. Almost all of them work when there is a free time or if it is weekend. According to the said interview they worked for 3-7 hours a day. It appears that in a 3 out of 12 child laborers, they had experience abused by their own family members. It clarify that all of them are living with their parents. Also, almost all of them are giving their earnings to their parents or guardians and the others for themselves or for their offering. It states that all of the child laborers are still tudying. It had been pointed that almost all the child laborers doesn’t have any other job beside their present. Their allowances are ranging from Php 500, which is the highest, and Php 40, which is the least. Child laborers also answer that they want to continue their studies for them to have a better life. After the interview, we concluded that child laborers are working not only from themselves but also to help their family expenses. Moreover, it is obvious that if a child has less hours in school and greater hour for free time they are more attainable to be engaged in work. B. Parents
We, the researchers, conducted an interview to 4 parents, which their child is engaged to work activities. We asked the parents why their children are working and the result is because their child wanted to help them for their expenses. According to the parents, their child works approximately 8 hours, which is the highest, and 3 hours, which is least. All of the parents answered that it is advantage for the child to work because they lessen the expenses at home. We concluded that parent agreed to their child to work because they help their family. It also helps their child to be matured like Maria Paz D.
Gutierrez, a parent of a child laborer, said,” Natuto siya sa buhay at magpahalaga sa pera. ” C. Government officials We, the researchers, conducted an interview to some government official; who are Exxon Susmerano, a social worker from DSWD (Department of Social Worker and Development) and Armando Ray Fajardo, a kagawad from barangay Kamuning. According to Armando Ray Fajardo,” Here in on our barangay we set feeding programs to those that don’t have money to buy food. Another is setting seminars to both the children and the parent so that they would gain more knowledges about the issue of child labor. Government officials also not help the child labor victims but also they teach the parent s and children to be aware in child labor. It also said that in some hidden places they had found some cases of child labor. Children are commonly seen as a child prostitute in some KTV bar in Kamuning. It is also said that DOLE has the list of the specific cases regarding to child labor. The interview pointed that child labor victims will have a bad negative for them, they will be matured-minded and they will not enjoy their childhood and they will begin to love their job. They also state that the one who caught employing children will be unished by law based on their crimes they committed. Interviewee also said that there are laws that are concerned to child labor. RI 9262, RA 7610, RA 7658, RA 9231, RA 9208 and RA 9775 are one of the few laws regarding to child labor. We concluded that Government officials help participates to decrease the child labor in our country. Also, they make laws that help children, but for us it is by act to know and not to words if a person wants to help the victims. ———————–  Weston Englstad, Hoover Elementary School of Iowa City, iowa  Zoe Grueskin, Hoower Elementary School of Iowa City, Iowa
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