Emergency Planning


Create a formal presentation of your plan for a board of examiners acting as your

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organization’s executive level management team.


You are required to submit a 20 slide, slide show of your presentation. Follow the below steps:

For the PowerPoint: Create a 15-20 minute PowerPoint (or similar application)

presentation addressing the following:

• Identify the needs of the community that will be addressed in your emergency


• Discuss ways to include the “Whole Community” in the planning process.

• Discuss how you engaged in the risk assessment process.

• Provide a sample of the hazards/threats you identified and the risks associated

with these hazards/threats.

• Provide a sample of the key resources and key capabilities needed to address

the risks associated with these hazards/threats.

• Describe the budgetary concerns you have with implementing this plan.

• Describe how you will exercise your plan according to HSEEP principles.

• Discuss what methods will you use to communicate your plan to the planning


• Describe how you will engage in plan maintenance.

• Provide a conclusion emphasizing the key points of your presentation.

• Provide a list of references for your resources.

Video Presentation: You will deliver a formal presentation (as determined by your

instructor) to a board of examiners acting as your organization’s executive level

management team. You are expected to demonstrate a mastery of the issues and

present a well-reasoned and defensible implementation of your emergency plan.

EMH490: Emergency Plan Project

Unit 8 Final Exam: Formal Plan Presentation

• Upload your PowerPoint/slide show to the Final Exam submission link in Unit 8

• In the comments to the instructor section, include the link to your video. If you

wish to keep the video private, choose “unlisted.” If you choose “private,” the

instructor will not be able to view it.

• Use the following instructions link to upload your video presentation to YouTube

(for PC, Android, or iPhone/iPad users):

How to receive a good grade


(15 points)

The type of presentation is appropriate for the topic and



Information is presented in a logical sequence. 5

Presentation properly cites references where appropriate. 5


(50 points)

Introduction commands audience attention and

establishes a framework for the rest of the presentation.


Technical terms are well-defined in language appropriate for

the target audience.


Presentation contains accurate information. 10

Material included is relevant to the overall presentation and

covers assignment instructions.


Appropriate amount of material is prepared, and points made

reflect well their relative importance.


There is an obvious conclusion summarizing the




(35 points)

Speaker maintains good eye contact with the audience and


appropriately animated (e.g., gestures, moving around, etc.).


Speaker uses a clear, audible voice. 5

Delivery is poised, controlled, and smooth. 5

Effective language skills and pronunciation are used. 5

Visual aids are well prepared, informative, effective, and not



Length of presentation is within the assigned time limits. 5

Information was well communicated. 5

Score Total Points 100


EMH490 Emergency Planning Project

A plan specifying the procedures for handling unexpected or sudden occurrences aimed at preventing fatalities and injuries, reducing damages to buildings, and protecting the entire society.

Norfolk City

in the State of Virginia.

Glen Johnson






In the first place, it is important to argue or mention that Norfolk city in the State of Virginia has been prone to numerous hurricanes and it is also anticipated that more may occur in the future. As a result, it is essential to come up with a specific plan in force to cater to such an emergency whenever it occurs. As mentioned in the title of this project, the plan is aimed at preventing injuries and fatalities whenever such a hurricane occurs. The plan is also aimed at reducing damages to properties and buildings as well as trying to protect the whole society or city that might be involved. Having mentioned the above information, the plan in force is a fire extinguishing plan in Norfolk City in the State of Virginia. The reason for having this plan in place is that after a given hurricane occurs, there is a great possibility that fire may erupt and this necessitates having a plan in place that will deal with such an occurrence. The above plan is one that will comprise a variety of activities.

As an example, the fire-fighting department as an organization will install fire-fighting devices in the area and the medical department will ensure that the medical supplies have been purchased to ensure that injuries will be catered to. The other important aspect is that of the food and environmental organizations purchasing enough food supplies to cater to the food necessities during the occurrence of such a hurricane. Based on the specific plan that has been put into place, it can be realized that key organizations or departments will be involved and they include the government agencies, medical and food departments as well as the fire-fighting organizations without forgetting the most notable one which is the Red Cross. The government agencies will be tasked with providing money or budget for the plan while the food organizations will be tasked with ensuring that there are food supplies at all the times they are required.

The medical department will ensure that medicine has been supplied and is readily available while fire-fighting organizations will be tasked with ensuring that fire will be dealt with whenever it occurs. The Red Cross will be tasked with evacuating the people that may be trapped in the different buildings and also providing medication. In all of the above organizations and departments, there will be certain individuals involved in providing services and as a result, they need to be trained adequately so that they may play their roles effectively and as it is supposed to be. The notable exercise that they need to be involved in include ensuring that finances are always available for supporting the above-mentioned plan. The Chief Executive also needs to work in collaboration with all the relevant organizations and stakeholders involved in this plan so that the anticipated results may be attained.

Nelson Nicholas

Fire Marshal

, Norfolk City in Virginia State


Nelson Nicholas, Fire Marshal Larry Boone,

Police Chief

Norfolk City, Virginia State Norfolk City, Virginia State

DiBacco John,

Fire Chief

Brooks Michael,

Deputy Fire Chief

Norfolk City, Virginia State Norfolk City, Virginia State

Martin Thomas,

Norfolk City Council

Kenny Alexander,


Norfolk City, Virginia State Norfolk City, Virginia State

Gregory Michael, Financial adviser Mercy Johnson, Economic analyst

Norfolk City, Virginia State Norfolk City, Virginia State

The above plan is a supersede of Norfolk City’s Fire Extinguishing plan dated December 2nd, 2003.

In this plan dated 2003, the


authority of the city was tasked with the activity of extinguishing fires, especially in the buildings and commercial garages. It was also tasked with offering precautions concerning fire in the most sensitive areas such as the commercial buildings and parking areas near fire scenes. However, with the recent developments or occurrences of various aspects of hurricanes, there arises a great desire for delegating the authority to specific individuals with a certain commander. The activity is one that will aid in easy monitoring and extinguishing of fire incidences whenever they occur as a result of a hurricane.

Norfolk’s City Fire extinguishing plan hereby delegates full authority to Nelson Nicholas, a Fire Marshal and one who can perform the operations of extinguishing fires that may mainly result from a hurricane. The above individual is one that will collaborate with the other specialists who will be tasked with executing all the activities of extinguishing fire in this city and this will reduce the burden of the General authority carrying out the exercise. The practice will also be highly coordinated after this delegation. In relation to this delegation, the chain of command and flow of information will appear as below.

Fire Marshal
Police Chief
Fire Chief
Deputy Fire Chief
Norfolk City Council

Change #


Part Affected

Date Posted

Who Posted

Delegation of fire extinguishing services

14th May 2022

Fire-fighting department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Delegation of evacuation activities

14th May 2022

Emergency planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Acquisition of medical supplies

14th May 2022

Medical department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Acquisition of food supplies

14th May 2022

Food security department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Delegation of rescue activities

14th May 2022

Rescue planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Involvement of law enforcement personnel

14th May 2022

Fire-fighting department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

City council role and responsibilities

14th May 2022

City Council’s disaster Response Unit

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Coordination of the activities

14th May 2022

The city’s the planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Teamwork and collaboration

14th May 2022

The city’s the planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Deployment of resources

14th May 2022

Economic planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Allocation of extra resources

14th May 2022

Economic planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Economic analysis

14th May 2022

Economic planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Involvement of the residents

14th May 2022

City council

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Research and extension

14th May 2022

City council department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Securing resources to fund the plan

14th May 2022

City Council

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Review of the plan

14th May 2022

Emergency planning department

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority

Adoption and retaining

14th May 2022

Emergency Response Unit

2nd June 2022

City’s General authority


Plan #





Fire-fighting department

Fire Marshal



Police department

Police Chief



Police department

Deputy Police Chief



Fire-fighting department

Fire chief



Fire-fighting department

Fire deputy chief



Financial department

Financial adviser



Administrative department




Emergency Response Unit




Evacuation office

Secretary to the Board



Emergency rescue department

Head officer



Transport Department

Head of Logistics



Licensing department




Disaster forecasting department




Disaster management office

Head of the office



Disaster mitigation department

Head of the department



TITLE PAGE_________________________________________________1

PROMULGATION STATEMENT__________________________________2

SIGNATURE PAGE____________________________________________3

APPROVAL AND IMPLEMENTATION_____________________________4

RECORD OF CHANGES________________________________________5

RECORD OF DISTRIBUTION_____________________________________6



REFERENCES __________ 22

1. Purpose, Scope, Situation, and Assumptions


As far as this plan is concerned, various departments and organizations are involved in dealing with fighting the fire within Norfolk City in Virginia State. Therefore, the plan intends to show the manner they work in collaboration and coordination to ensure that those fires resulting from certain hurricanes that occur in this state are dealt with in a coordinated and collaborative manner. The plan also intends to show the aspect of the roles and responsibilities played by the different organizations and departments in dealing with such a menace and also the practice of delegation of this important activity within Norfolk City in the State of Virginia. Also, as a result of the occurrence of numerous hurricanes and anticipation of more which tend to lead to a fire eruption, then it becomes important to have such a plan for a fire emergency that might occur because of a given hurricane.


Various organizations and departments are involved in this plan and as a result, it applies to all these departments and firms and they are those which are situated within Norfolk City in the State of Virginia. The involved organizations and departments are as mentioned in the promulgation of this plan.

An Overview of the situation



The state of Virginia includes Norfolk City and also the city of Richmond as well as the notable city of Fairfax among others. Therefore, the above cities are common in this state and who the plan target once completed and implemented.


Norfolk city is the third largest city in the State of Virginia after Virginia Beach and Chesapeake and this is as per the 2020 census. As for the Geographic location of Norfolk City, it is situated opposite the city of Portsmouth, Virginia, north of Elizabeth River in the Hampton Roads region, south of Chesapeake Bay at the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, the plan will be centered around this region.


As per the 2020 census, Norfolk City in the State of Virginia had a population of 238,005 individuals and this made it to be the third-most populated city in Virginia. As a result, the city also managed to be the 94th largest nation in the United States. The above population results from the ample living conditions that are found in this region which facilitate a favorable living for the individuals.

Designated Areas of Interest

In Norfolk City within the state of Virginia, there are certain areas of interest that have been designated. The specific areas include having special sites for the Commonwealth games. The area is also visited by the majority of the visitors due to the calmer waters as well as the ample and free space for parking for the visitors and tourists.

Special Events

Among the special events that are carried out in Norfolk City in the State of Virginia include the Summer Concert and which is an occasion that attracts even 100,000 people. There are also commonwealth events that attract a large number of participants who visit to enjoy the numerous games that are played in the region.

Economic Base and Infrastructure

Norfolk City’s economy has evolved from its traditional tourism and textile dependence into one of great diversity. Today’s commercial and industrial manufacturing base is complemented by solid and growing trade and service sectors. Much tourism activity is centered around this region of Norfolk City in the state of Virginia. There is also an economic diversification that has helped create new employment and smooth the impact of cyclical swings. The practice is also one that aided in lowering the rates of unemployment among the large population that was experiencing increased incidences of unemployment. Generally, it can be argued that the economic status of Norfolk City has improved tremendously within the past years and this is a result of increased production. The infrastructural development has also not been left behind since roads have been developed and this has further been a result of the growth of the economy of Norfolk City.

Hazard Profile

Potential Hazards

Norfolk City is subjected to the effects of many disasters, varying widely in type and magnitude from local communities to statewide in scope.

Disaster conditions could be a result of a number of natural phenomena such as avalanches, earthquakes, floods, severe thunderstorms, high water, drought, severe winter weather, fires (including urban, grass, and forest fires), epidemics, severe heat, or high winds. Apart from natural disasters, Norfolk City is subject to a myriad of other disaster contingencies. The notable one is the number of hurricanes that have hit this region with anticipation of more and more hurricanes occurring even in the future. The above hurricanes have devastating effects on the people and the environment whenever they strike and they lead to injuries and fatalities as well as the destruction of buildings. People are also displaced and rendered homeless forgetting to mention leading to food shortages and lack of clothing. The other common effect is the explosion or eruption of fire which necessitates being put off after the eruption. As a result, the plan intends to deal with this menace of fire explosion that might arise whenever a hurricane strikes so that the devastating effects may be evaded.

Vulnerability Assessment

Norfolk City

The vulnerability assessment checklist for Norfolk City is shown below.

High loss of lives

High rate of building destruction

Pollution of the environment

Displacement of the people

Richmond City

The vulnerability assessment checklist for Richmond City is shown below.

Eruption of fire

Food shortages

Lack of shelter

Lack of clothing

Planning Assumptions

Effective prediction and warning systems have been established that make it possible to anticipate certain disaster situations that may occur throughout the jurisdiction or the general area beyond the jurisdiction’s boundaries.

It is assumed that any of the disaster contingencies could individually, or in combination, cause a grave emergency situation within Norfolk City in the state of Virginia. It is also assumed that these contingencies will vary in scope and intensity, from an area in which the devastation is isolated and limited to one that is wide-ranging and extremely devastated. For this reason, planning efforts are made as general as possible so that great latitude is available in their application, considering they could occur in several locations simultaneously.

Initial actions to mitigate the effects of emergency situations or potential disaster conditions will be conducted as soon as possible by the local government.

Assistance to the affected jurisdictions(s) by response organizations from another jurisdiction(s) is expected to supplement the efforts of the affected jurisdiction(s) in an efficient, effective, and coordinated response when jurisdiction officials determine their own resources to be insufficient.

Federal and State disaster assistance, when provided, will supplement, not substitute for, the relief provided by local jurisdictions.

It is the responsibility of officials under this plan to save lives, protect property, relieve human suffering, sustain survivors, repair essential facilities, restore services, and protect the environment.

When a jurisdiction receives a request to assist another jurisdiction, reasonable actions will be taken to provide the assistance as requested.

Concept of Operations


The police officers or any prevailing authority from the city will have to inform the public that a disaster has occurred and it has led to an explosion of fire, especially in this case. The same officers or the authority will inform the public that they have to avoid all the affected or hit areas and ensure that the unaffected public does not disclose such areas. As an example, they may place the yellow lines which are mostly written, “Do not Cross” to secure the affected areas.

The second step will entail trying to involve the emergency response team and those to evacuate people who have been trapped. It is also important to indicate that the firefighters will be highly involved in this case and the medical personnel will also play a key role in this step.

The essential general thing to do at this point is taking the injured to the hospitals and feeding the hungry, dressing the undressed, and so forth. At this point, all the above-mentioned offices and departments will be involved and this is an aspect of collaboration and teamwork that is highly needed at such a point. Numerous evacuations will also be made at this point and these are all geared toward making sure that life has been saved as much as it would be possible.

The other general thing is that communication will start flowing and this is one that will tell persons that a hurricane has taken place and has devastating effects that need to be dealt with. As a result, the members of the family and relatives will start contacting their members to know about their safety and trying to help them.

Hazard Control and Assessment

Perceive the threat. In this step, it is important to perceive the threat by looking at its nature and magnitude, maybe its causes and prevalence and also trying to make sure or accept that the disaster has occurred and people have to cope with it.

Assess the threat. The assessment involves the extent of the damages it has caused and the number of people affected or even those residences that are impacted by such a disaster.

Control the disaster risks. After a disaster occurs, numerous potential threats exist and they are those which might lead to further worsening the situation. as a result, they need to be controlled so that they may not lead to further destruction and this will aid in monitoring or mitigating the risk.

Monitor the hazard. In case of a fire, it will have to be monitored from all the dimensions and reduced slowly by slowly.

Control the hazard. As for this step and in case of a fire, it will be extinguished and this is a situation that will allow the participants to record their findings.

Record your findings. Essential findings and results will be recorded and these are those which may be used for dealing with the menace.

Review the controls. All of the control measures that had been put into place will be reviewed in this section and further analysis carried out.

Protective Action Selection

Telling the residents to stay out of the floodwater

Informing the residents never to use electrical devices that are wet.

In the case of a Power blackout, entice the affected to use flashlights.

Prevent poisoning from toxic gases.

Public Warning

Wear protective garments when going out.

Near walk or stay away from collapsed buildings or hanging ones.

Do not near or interfere with any material that appears to explode.

Be mindful of any other person that appears to be at risk.

Protective Action Implementation

The individuals violating the protective action should be held into account.

Control access and isolate the danger area

Evacuation actions should be done by protected individuals.

Document the activities and support programs

Deal with the affected first and others come later.

Provide any form of support required may it be financial or material help.

Identify the untouched areas and deal with them effectively.

Short-term Needs

Provide shelter and food services.

Continued medical treatment

Preventing risks associated with the disaster

Ensure general security for all the affected people.

Long-term Needs

Treating the injured and the destabilized.

Sheltering the homeless.

Long-term feeding programs until the displaced people get back to their normal living styles.

Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities



Whenever an emergency occurs, various organizations, departments, and or agencies have different roles or responsibilities that they will have to play. The emergency roles or functions that such organizations or agencies will have to play or will be play comes as an addition to the routine or their normal roles. The departments and organizations may also be governmental organizations or NGOs, i.e., Non-Governmental Organizations that have to work in coordination or collaboration to ensure that what they intend to achieve has been attained. The emergency response organizations have to come up with their working mechanisms and programs which have to be developed and retained within the organization or department.

0. Organization

As mentioned above, various organizations will be tasked with responding to an emergency and in this case, a fire that would erupt after a hurricane. The below organizations are key to responding to a fire that might result after a hurricane.

The police or security department

Fire-fighting departments

The emergency health personnel department

Emergency management agencies

Community volunteers

Food supply agencies

Medical supplies departments


Red Cross organizations

Educational departments

Family support organizations

Office of Civil Defense. By law, the office of civil defense is responsible for formulating and implementing the NDRRMP and also making sure that the social, physical, economic, and environmental plans of the communities have been implemented and are consistent with such an emergency plan.

Emergency Medical Team

WHO, i.e., World Health Organization.

Financial departments such as the World Banks

0. Assignment of Responsibilities

2. The police or security department

0. Involved in the ideal declaration of the emergency

0. Protecting and securing the prone area or the area that has been hit by the emergency so that the residents do not interfere with it.

0. Providing orders involving evacuations

0. Supporting evacuation services.

0. Aiding in collaboration with the other departments to ensure there are coordinated evacuation services.

2. Fire-fighting departments

1. Are involved in real evacuation activities such as trying to save lives and property as much as it would be possible.

1. Tasked with extinguishing the fire and preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.

1. Involved in rescue and evacuation activities and providing directions on the course to take in dealing with the emergency.

1. Ascertaining and assessing the level/extent of the damage caused by the fire.

1. Search and rescue services.

2. The emergency health personnel department

2. Emergency medical transportation

2. Emergency medical treatment

2. Triage or assisting with triage

2. Assisting with functional needs population evacuation

2. Community volunteers

3. Offering support services as directed by the firefighters and the police departments.

2. Food supply agencies

4. Provision of food and water to the displaced.

4. Called upon to help in the movement of people from the area of incidence.

2. Medical supplies departments

5. Plays an essential responsibility in supplying medical equipment and drugs for treating the affected.

5. Offering first aid services to those who require them.

2. Hospitals

6. Accommodating the injured groups of people.

6. Treating the affected and guiding them on their treatments.

2. Red Cross organizations

7. Offering first-aid activities and equipment.

7. Helping the health professionals in treating the people.

7. Used in offering food and water services to the affected group of people.

7. Plays a role in guiding and counseling those who have been affected by the menace.

2. Educational departments

8. Provision of a temporal basis to train those who will be involved in the evacuations and rescue services.

8. Providing the use of facilities for emergency public education

8. Providing facilities for emergency housing of evacuees and relief forces

8. Provision of recreational services and plans for short-term settling of the displaced.

8. May be used in housing displaced people.

2. Family support organizations

9. Providing food services to the affected.

9. Offering shelter and clothing to the displaced and those who have been involved or hit by the emergency.

9. Providing guidance and counseling services and activities to the affected people.

2. Office of Civil Defense.

10. By law, the office of civil defense is responsible for formulating and implementing the NDRRMP and also making sure that the social, physical, economic, and environmental plans of the communities have been implemented and are consistent with such an emergency plan.

2. Emergency Medical Team

11. Including a number of health professionals like doctors, paramedics, and nurses, the team is tasked with treating patients that have been affected by an emergency.

11. The team is also tasked with dealing with the instances of trauma, and surgical focus in case there will be a need for such a focus.

11. Identification of the risks and assessing the impacts arising from the fire emergency.

11. Aiding in recovery and restoration.

2. World Health Organization, WHO.

12. Offering medical support to help the affected

12. Guidance and counseling services to those who require it.

12. Documentation and recording among other rescue services.

2. Financial departments such as the World Banks

Providing the required monetary support to aid in dealing with the emergency, i.e., fire emergency resulting from a hurricane.

Providing financial advice on how to use the available funds in dealing with the emergency.

Providing support services such as monetary aid to the family members that require it so that they may deal with the emergency.

Transportation Department

Provide vehicles and ambulances for rescuing the people.

Coordination of transport activities in and out of the scene to ensure a coordinated and logical movement of the evacuation process.

Providing financial support where and when required.

Support Functions

Amref Health America is also the other essential entity that might provide a lot of support to the victims of the emergency. It can be used to offer medical and transport services whenever required or called upon to do so and may also provide evacuation services.

Support from the National Guard may be requested through the State office of emergency management. Military assistance will complement and not be a substitute for local participation in emergency operations. Military forces will remain at all times under military command but will support and assist response efforts.

Humanitarian Non-governmental organizations may be involved in proving the required assistance such as helping the affected people to reunite with their families after the disaster.

Volunteer agencies, such as the American Red Cross, local church/synagogue congregations, and assistive organizations, such as the Salvation Army, are available to give assistance with sheltering, feeding, and other issues, as necessary.

The International Monetary Fund, IMF is also the other important entity that might help during an emergency to a great extent. The specific way they may help is by providing the required amounts of money that would facilitate all the activities that will be required to be conducted during the emergency and even after the situation as huge finances will be needed.

0. Continuity of Government

Line of the succession of officials

For effective coordination of activities during an emergency, there is a great desire for having a line of succession of the officials or even the flow of commands. The undertaking has to be hierarchical and in relation to the involved state where this emergency planning project focuses, below is the hierarchy of command of succession.

0. State Government Succession

In relation to the Constitution of the State where Norfolk City is situated, the line of succession is designated as below.

At the top, there is the Governor

Below the governor is the Lieutenant Governor

Attorney General is the other individual below them

Then there is the presiding officer of the cities or counties in the State

Leaders at the local level

At the bottom level, there are the people’s representatives.

0. Local Government Succession

Every jurisdiction has its own local government succession that usually is referred to within the local EOP. As an example, in the State of Virginia, there is a local government succession structure. At the top, there are the county governments followed by the town and city governments respectively.

Relocation of Government

Each jurisdiction is responsible for designating facilities that will accommodate the relocation of the government. As per the jurisdiction of the State of Virginia, the designation of facilities is also done in line with the structure of local government succession as described above.

Preservation of Records

State Level

Each agency/department is responsible for maintaining and recording all legal documents affecting the organization and administration of emergency management functions. It is the further responsibility of State officials to ensure that all records are secure and protected from elements of damage or destruction at all times.

Local Level

All of the elected officials have a responsibility to play and it involves making sure that all the legal documents of both public and private nature recorded by the designated official be protected and preserved according to the applicable State and local laws. Examples include ordinances, resolutions, meeting minutes, land deeds, and tax records.


Binu Jacob and Anthony R. Mawson et. al., (2018). Disaster Mythology and Fact: The case of numerous hurricanes and social attachment. Public Health Rep, 123(5). 555-566.

Rout BK. (2017). Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Control Measures in the case of a Hazard.

CDC. (2018). Storm, Flood, and Hurricane Response. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Kapucu, N., & Hu, Q. (2016). Understanding the multiplexity of collaborative emergency management networks. The American Review of Public Administration, 46(4), 399-417.

Nakazawa, T., & Beppu, S. (2012). Shifting from emergency food to disaster preparation food to help disaster survivors. Sci. Technol. Trends. Quart. Rev, 44, 36-52.

Thevenaz, C., & Resodihardjo, S. L. (2010). All the best-laid plans… conditions impeding proper emergency response. International Journal of Production Economics, 126(1), 7-21.

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