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Effects of Social Media on Academic Performance for College Students

Student’s Name

Due Date

Effects of Social Media on Academic Performance of College Students

Problem Statement

The impact of social media on college students’ academic performance was a new direction I decided to pursue after considering my professor’s response from milestone one. As a result of a growth in the use of social media, many college students are able to generate and share information and network at a phenomenal rate. Thanks to recent technological developments, cell phones have essentially become mini computers. A favorable or bad effect on college students’ academic performance can be attributed to their use of social media. Researchers hope to find out if students’ conduct and academic performance are impacted by their use of social media (Bernard &Ndzandza, 2018).

Many students’ daily routines are now dominated by their use of the internet. College students who have so much to see and do are hard to picture not checking their social media accounts for new information. The majority of college students use social media to keep up with current events and hot button problems throughout the world. However, the kids’ performance may not be adversely affected by this conduct. Some students utilize social media to get information that they can use in their academic endeavors. Using social media, college students are influencing public conversation in a variety of ways, from education, the environment, fashion, entertainment, and technology to politics. On the contrary of this, social media has been criticised for creating a dependency in its users When it comes to social media, most students spend more than 30 minutes a day on it. This could have an impact on their success because the college requires students to achieve certain grades on each exam (Chaker et al., 2022).

Communication among students has been made easier thanks to social media, which has prompted more of them to make use of the networking tools available to them. Due to its favorable impact on student achievement, social media has been highlighted in the field of social science. Because of this, social media has fostered research in a variety of sectors. These requests for study have piqued the interest of the majority of pupils ( Alsaad, et al 2018). Modern technological advancements have facilitated the entire procedure. Time spent in school can be saved by attending class through the internet.

Several articles I am relying on for my research are cited in this article. Online debate is facilitated through social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, according to an essay by Bernard.J (2018). Students’ use of social media for communication has exploded. This means that the article is able to meet the requirements of most of the sources of information in this study. There are several more articles cited in the study to support the conclusion that the use of social media has an impact on academic performance, such as

https://tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1108/09720073.2017.1317962

and

https://newlearningtimes.com/cms/article/4805

Annotated Bibliography

Bernard, K. J., & Ndzandza, P. E. (2018). EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN GHANAIAN UNIVERSITIES: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, LEGON. Retrieved from

https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4687&context=libphilprac

Abstract: Social media have been introduced in this study. There is a comparison of the positive and negative effects on college students of using social media. Even among young individuals, the internet’s growth has led to an increase in social media use.

Summary: As a result of the wide availability of academic information on social media, college students have gained a great deal in their academics.

Limitations: The research did not offer believable mitigating techniques to reduce the harmful effects of social media on kids.

Effects of Social Media Usage on Academic Performance. (2017, November 8). Retrieved from

https://newlearningtimes.com/cms/article/4805/effects-of-social-media-usage-on-academic

Abstract: Using social media for instructional and communication purposes has become a common practice among universities. This method has been embraced by universities in order to obtain academic resources and to enhance online collaborations between students and faculty members.

Limitations: Not all students’ internet activity has been the same. It is impossible for the researcher to presume that all pupils gain from social media in exactly the same manner.

Summary: The research focused on the habits of online students in the areas of media sharing, video gaming, and web browsing. The findings of the study were utilized to support students’ beliefs about how they interact with social media.

Social Media and its Impact on Academic Performance among University Students. (2017, May 24). Retrieved from

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09720073.2017.1317962

Abstract: Analysis of many theories on active learning on social media was included in this article’s abstract. Students’ use of social media has been deemed effective. Researchers drew on constructivism and the technology acceptance paradigm in their efforts to get to the heart of their issues.

Limitations: Quantitative methods may not be accurate enough to be used as a source of data in this investigation.

Summary: The findings of the study suggest that social media is necessary for all young people to use. Students’ grades and test scores have been shown to benefit significantly from social media use in the classroom, according to research.

Talaue, G., Alsaad, A., Alhugail, A., & Alfahhad, S. (2018). THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED COLLEGE STUDENTS. Retrieved from

http://aircconline.com/ijait/V8N5/8518ijait03

Abstract: The study examined the impact of social media on the academic performance of a group of students at a university. Facebook, You Tube, and Twitter were utilized in the study because they are common types of social media used by students at colleges and universities.

Summary: According to the study, students’ academic performance is affected by a variety of factors, including their use of social media. Social networks should be restricted within university and college grounds, according to the report.

Limitations: This is a difficult task because college students need computers to conduct their study.

Literature review

Introduction

It is through the creation of virtual ties that social media facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions, and information. Aside from that, the platform allows for a quick reaction time for electronic communication users. Social networking is a valuable resource for students. Furthermore, students’ college performance has both negatively and positively impacted by social media. Social media’s impact on student achievement is the subject of a qualitative study I conducted for my thesis.

Positive impacts of social media on education performances

According to John & Emefa ( 2018), the 1990s saw the birth of social media, which resulted in major changes in the world. Platforms for communication have advanced significantly. Beyond the effects on the economy, the educational system has also been affected. They might have a variety of beneficial or harmful effects. New concepts and content have been developed and are being used by students all around the world as a result of this. In addition, the author points out that more than 90% of students at the higher institution were using social media to conduct research on a variety of subjects. John & Emefa ( 2018) research shows that social media has four main advantages for students at the tertiary institution. ‘ Positive relationships are fostered, motivation to study is improved, individualized course needs and materials are presented, and collaboration skills are developed. Since the advent of social media in the 21st century, learning has been facilitated. The ability to more easily connect to fresh ideas via social media has also contributed to the expansion of our collective knowledge (Cao & Tian, 2022).

e-learning platforms have also emerged as a result of social media, allowing students to learn from the comfort of their own homes. Students benefit from the site as well because it allows them to engage with other students on class projects and assignments. As a result, students can help each other with their own studies. As a result of these outcomes, social media has helped kids learn and perform better by providing educational resources. It is impossible to overestimate the impact of social media on academic attainment. According to Heffner (2016)’s study, students who are feeling down about their grades can turn to social media for support. As a result of the internet, students are able to contact with each other and resolve a variety of educational issues. There should also be instructional platforms that teach people how to get the most out of social media (Gilbert, et. al. 2018).

Negative impacts of social media on education performance

According to John & Emefa ( 2018) on the negative effects of social media on education, the introduction of these tools has had substantial consequences. The information on social media has been affected by privacy cases. No obvious negative effects of social media on schooling are presented in this article

Conclusion

To summarize, the use of social media in the classroom has a big impact. Although there are some downsides, the good benefit surpasses them. As a result of the ease with which students may now communicate via social media, new sources of knowledge are becoming available. The only way to perform research and other tasks at a tertiary institution is via social media. To maximize the benefits of social media, educational channels should be built that teach students how to use it effectively (Borah et al., 2022).

References

Borah, P. S., Iqbal, S., & Akhtar, S. (2022). Linking social media usage and SME’s sustainable performance: The role of digital leadership and innovation capabilities. Technology in Society, 68, 101900.

Cao, G., & Tian, Q. (2022). Social media use and its effect on university student’s learning and academic performance in the UAE. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 54(1), 18-33.

Chaker, N. N., Nowlin, E. L., Pivonka, M. T., Itani, O. S., & Agnihotri, R. (2022). Inside sales social media use and its strategic implications for salesperson-customer digital engagement and performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 100, 127-144.

Gilbert, M, T., Alsaad, A., alrushaidan, N., alhugai, A., Alfa had, S. (2018). THE IMPACT OF social media on academic performance of selected college students http://aircconline.com/ijait/V8N5/8518ijait03

Heffner, Tara. (2016). “The effects of social media use in undergraduate students” Theses and Dissertations. 1440.

Http://rdw.rowan.edu/etd/1440

.

John, B, K., & Emefa, D, P. ( 2018). Effect of social media on the academic performance of students in Ghanaian universities: a case study of the University of Ghana, legion.

1 FINAL PROPOSAL: SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCH GRAD STUDENTS

  • Final Proposal: Sleep and Online Psychology Graduate Students
  • Student X

    Research Methods in Psychology I

    Dr. Y

    August 16, 2020

    2 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    Sleep and Online Psychology Graduate Students

    Sleep deprivation is a common problem in today’s busy society. Working a job,

    bearing children and parenting, accomplishing daily tasks like personal care, shopping, and

    engaging in social activities are similar to the popular challenge game, Jenga: a huge pile of

    blocks stacked one upon another, hopefully in a stable fashion. Adding an undertaking as

    intense as an online graduate program challenges balancing the extra hours needed to study,

    listen, participate in clinical work, and achieve a professional education. Personal and

    workplace expectations of performance may increase the pressures people experience to keep

    all the blocks of responsibility in life in check.

    Problem Statement

    Advances in technology have evolved rapidly and created the ability to undertake

    graduate learning in an online format. Due to the proliferation of online studies in the last

    decade, few studies have been done regarding effects, quality, and comparisons to on-campus

    graduate education programs (Ablanedo-Rosas et al., 2011). Many studies indicate that most

    people require 6.5 to 8 hours of sleep a night (Ablanedo-Rosas et al., 2011; Brown et al., 2006;

    Saeed et al., 2015). How might the addition of an online psychology graduate program affect

    the sleep patterns of students adding this extra burden to their daily to-do list?

    The research question for this study is, how does the addition of time and energy

    involved in participating in the SNHU online psychology graduate program affect quantity and

    quality of life? Based on previous research on sleep deprivation and the sleeping patterns of

    working adults and students, the hypothesis is that there will be a negative relationship between

    sleep quantity and general life stress.

    3 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    Literature Review

    People enroll in and complete an online psychology graduate program for a variety of

    reasons. Some do so in a desire to reach a level of proficiency in their field of

    study.

    Any

    compromises in the area of sleep have been shown to have repercussions throughout all areas of

    life, as well as impairing the quality of learning in their field of profession study.

    Swanson et al. (2011) found that job strain and other life pressures impact sleep. Using

    data from the 2008 Sleep in America Poll, which was a telephone survey focused on work and

    sleep correlations, Swanson et al. (2011) purchased a random sample (N = 1,000) with quotas

    established for demographics. One-way ANOVAS and chi-square tests of association were

    used to examine hours worked and sleep. Results showed that respondents who worked longer

    hours self-reported less sleep on both work and non-work days. The variables of sleep quality

    were analyzed using t-tests.

    Saeed et al. (2015) studied medical students in a cross-sectional survey to determine

    their distinctive sleep patterns and compared mid-term scores of pass or fail to each sleep

    group. Lack of sleep was negatively associated with exam performance. Saeed et al. (2015)

    studied three groups: monophasic, biphasic, and polyphasic.

    The monophasic group was defined by sleeping at least six hours in one stretch per day.

    The biphasic group slept about eight hours in one stretch and took one nap per day. The

    polyphasic group slept by taking many naps throughout a 24-hour period. Saeed et al., (2015)

    studied 347 student participants that included 135 monophasic, 162, biphasic, and 50 polyphasic

    sleepers. These students’ mid-term exam scores were correlated using SPSS. Results showed that

    the biphasic group passed the mid-term in higher numbers than either of the other two groups.

    The monophasic group scored significantly higher than the polyphasic group.

    4 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    The researchers concluded that the biphasic sleep pattern fits the natural human body’s

    circadian cycle; echoing and supporting the work of Gunzelmann et al. (2009). The polyphasic

    group was determined to be inefficient because many shorter periods of sleep prevented

    extended REM sleep.

    Saeed et al. (2015) also found that that a regular sleep time routine was so important that

    moving the time of sleep by as little as two hours had a negative impact on the more commonly

    reported effects of sleep deprivation, such as irritability, attention, psychomotor difficulties, and

    problems with cognition (Ablanedo-Rosas et

    al., 2011; Brown et al., 2006).

    The effect of sleep deprivation on the employment environment, such as night shift

    work, was the focus of Hildingh and Baigi (2010). They used a 2004 Swedish population

    study of 12,166 employed participants. Of this population, 2,047 respondents indicated they

    had hypertension and a statistically significant number of these also reported some level of

    sleep deprivation. Hildingh and Baigi (2010) determined that several factors, including time

    pressures, workplace hostility, and sleep issues were associated with higher levels of

    hypertension. Job strain was a major contributing factor.

    A study done regarding shift work, especially night hours, by Buchvold et al. (2015), on

    a sample of Norwegian nurses, used a cross-sectional study. The researchers collected data

    from a sample (N = 2,059) regarding demographic and lifestyles. BMI, smoking, drinking,

    hours of shift work, eating habits, caffeine use and exercise were all factors they examined

    using a multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. The results showed a

    positive, statistically significant increase in BMI with night shift work. Many psychology

    graduate students might choose late night hours to study, when it is less distracting at home.

    This may cut into night sleep cycles and could have adverse effects such as gaining weight,

    5 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    smoking for stress relief, or using caffeine to stay awake.

    Ablanedo-Rosas et al. (2011) conducted an empirical case analysis at a modern

    accredited university focusing on stress in academic professionals, administrative staff, and

    students. They created a questionnaire constructed to address stress and its effects and had the

    measure reviewed by five academics, then pre-tested by two academics, two administrative

    staff, and four students. Out of 1,500 questionnaires sent to students, 237 were returned for

    analysis, or 16% of the student population. One-way ANOVA was used to test between-group

    effects, while anger and stress variables were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Pearson’s

    correlation (Ablanedo-Rosas et al., 2011, p. 558). Linear regression for the variables showed

    significant results only for the variables of work stress, work overload, work saturation, being

    overwhelmed, and stress management abilities. Students rated highest in sleep problems and

    depression or irritability when compared to academics and administrative personnel. Students

    felt being overwhelmed and having lack of sleep to be their biggest problem.

    Myers et al. (2012) used multiple regression analysis to identify self-care practices and

    the level of stress perceived by psychology graduate students. Sending out a self-report

    survey, 488 students completed the questionnaire and returned the results. Ages ranged from

    20 to 61 years (M = 27, SD = 5.44) with 84% female and 87% Caucasian respondent. All were

    enrolled in accredited American Psychological Association (APA) graduate programs. The

    predominance of females and Caucasians was consistent with recent APA statistics regarding

    the demographics of graduate students in psychology (Myers et al., 2012, p. 62).

    Statistically significant differences showed married subjects were less stressed. Older

    students also reported less stress as did those with adequate income. Linear regression showed

    no impact based on race or geographic area, or type of graduate program. Healthy sleep

    6 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    practices showed a specific significant predictor for less stress, as did higher levels of social

    support. The participants rated most likely to be significantly stressed were those who were not

    in a relationship, confirming prior research by Hudson & O’Regan (1994). Sleep deprivation

    also correlated with negative emotional reactions, such as irritation or hostility. Bias may be

    present in the fact that the participants choose to join the study. These findings agree also

    aligned with Orzel-Gryglewska (2010), which was a study of online psychology graduate

    students. Orzel-Gryglewska (2010 found female online doctoral/graduate students felt more

    stress and indicated a need for more social support in their experiences.

    New breakthroughs in research in biomedical models of sleep deprivation have been

    conducted by using fMRIs to capture the following physical consequences: tunnel vision or

    blurry vision and the inability of the visual cortex to capture the entire image of information

    when fatigued. Saeed et al. (2015) found that sleep deprivation lessened the creation and

    storing of memories. This impairment was harmful to graduate students who must excel in

    learning new material. Fatigue also negatively impacted cognition (Saeed, et al., 2015),

    sleepiness during waking hours, slow response times, and drops in attention (Hildingh &

    Baigi, 2010).

    A common theme in this literature review was the need for proper sleep habits to ensure

    health and effective life function. Some researchers advocated and have created studies to

    develop sleep education programs for beginning college students. Peachey and Zelman (2012),

    created a sleep appreciation program for psychology graduate students who participated in a10-

    week online course. After raising awareness of sleep habits, these graduate students were able to

    utilize this information in regard to their clinical practice training.

    Brown et al. (2006) created STEPS, a 30-minute oral presentation which included

    7 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    handouts on sleep hygiene guidelines, stimulus control instructions, and information about

    substances with caffeine. Prior to this STEPS presentation, the participants took two Introduction

    to Psychology classes took the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and The Sleep Hygiene

    Awareness and Practices Scale (SHAPS). At six weeks post experiment, the students report

    better amount of quantity and quality of sleep. Brown et al. (2006) determined that prophylactic

    approach in presenting the value of sleep education and steps to manage sleep quality were

    helpful for students adjusting to and succeeding.

    Advantages & Disadvantages

    In regard to the research question of this paper, the literature review provided the

    advantage of setting an established evidence basis for the need for at least eight hours of sleep

    per day (Brown et al., 2006; Gunzelmann et al., 2009; Swanson et al., 2011). Swanson et al.

    (2011) found that job strain and pressure impacted sleep in the result from a large sample (N =

    1,000) of telephone surveys regarding work stress and hours slept. Hildingh and Baigi (2010),

    in their Swedish study, supported prior research about the relationship between sleep and work.

    Some studies may suffer from bias in that they depend on participants who self-select

    into the study. The telephone surveys analyzed by Swanson et al. (2011) may have induced

    participants to answer questions because they were contacted and did not have to show

    initiative to join the survey. Self-selection bias can skew research results.

    A disadvantage of the studies cited above on includes a focus on psychology graduate

    students, medical students, and college students. This approach limited the generalizability of

    these studies. The various research efforts considered students in different fields of study;

    these many not be interchangeable. Also, undergraduate students may not have as high a

    level of stress as graduate students, so stress measures in studies of undergraduate students

    8 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    may be understated (Myers et al., 2012).

    Another disadvantage in some recent biophysical studies on sleep is that it is difficult to

    reproduce the fMRI studies which scientists used to predict the effects of sleep loss. This

    medical area is not able to be subjected to t-tests or probability studies due to the lack of access

    to data and the dearth of such research. These studies show promise in underlying the

    symptoms sleep deprivation may occur individuals and will add to previous research showing

    that lack of sleep is as dangerous in driving accidents as is driving drunk (Ablanedo-Rosas et

    al., 2011; Brown et al., 2006).

    To summarize the findings of the literature review above, the need for sufficient sleep

    has been established in prior research (Ablanedo-Rosas et al., 2011; Brown et al., 2006; Saeed

    et al., 2015). Sleep is one part of life that cannot be dismissed without physical, emotional, and

    cognitive consequences. Side effects of sleep deprivation have been identified in large

    population studies as well as in meta-analyzes using I-tests to examine variables of life which

    can impact sleep (Swanson et al., 2010). The studies using fMRIs are difficult to reproduce for

    the average researcher and results must be taken on face value due to the small amount of such

    studies.

    A common disadvantage in all the above research is the lack of study specifically done

    with online students, especially in graduate programs. This area would include the burdens of

    everyday life, which factor into the type of sleep the SNHU online graduate students’

    experiences. The lack of current data from research on online graduate students, combined with

    foundational evidence regarding sleep deprivation, support the need for this study. These

    studies provide a helpful foundation to study the hypothesis that online graduate psychology

    students are likely to get less sleep and have more stress.

    9 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    Method

    Participants

    The number of participants for this study will be those SNHU psychology graduate

    students who self-select into the study. All participants will be gathered from a population of

    current online psychology graduate students enrolled in the Southern New Hampshire

    University Online Studies program. The demographics of this population are will not be known

    as demographic considerations are not part of this study’s hypothesis.

    Materials

    The material for this study will consist entirely of a survey. The survey will be created

    and administered in Qualtrics, an online platform endorsed for use by SNHU for this project.

    Qualtrics will allow those who self-select into the study to participate will relative ease.

    Procedures

    After the survey is constructed, a unique link to the survey will be posted in the

    Psychology Student Lounge at SNHU to provide access for current graduate students to

    complete. Participants will be asked to indicate their responses to topics such as the number of

    hours slept per night and questions related to their stress levels. These variables will be

    analyzed to determine if the hypothesis for this study can be accepted.

    Ethical Considerations

    This study will be authorized by SNHU. The restrictions place on this study (e.g., only

    being allowed to collect data from fellow students) helps ensure the ethicality of this effort. In

    addition, informed consent information will be presented and only those who grant consent will

    be allowed to participate. Any prospective participant can choose to not participate, or can

    choose to exit the study at any time, without any penalty or negative repercussions. Neither the

    10 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    researcher nor the class instructor will know who did or did not participate in this study.

    Because this study will ask about personal issues (i.e., sleep and stress), there is a

    possibility that some respondents could experience some level of distress. For example,

    participants may not have had full awareness of the amount of stress in their lives and

    responding to questions about stress could trouble them, actually increasing their stress levels.

    Participants will therefore be provided with the phone number of the SNHU Counseling Center.

    The suggestion will also be made to contact a local Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor

    for assistance should they feel the need to do so.

    Data Analysis Plan

    Prepare New Data

    The raw data from the online survey will be entered into SSPS. Each variable will be

    examined for descriptive data, such as the mean and standard deviation. Scatterplots and

    boxplots will be created to find any outliners which may affect the data analysis. Outliers, if any,

    will be addressed based on their number and severity.

    Descriptive Statistics

    Descriptive statistics will, at a minimum, include means, ranges, and standard deviations

    for each variable. This information will be presented in table form for clarity. Scatterplots and

    boxplots will be used, if appropriate based on the data received.

    Analytic Procedures

    According to Rosnow and Rosenthal (2013), variables are not examined in isolation but

    in context with other variables and the nature of the study. The relationship between sleep

    quantity and stress will be analyzed using Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation (r), which is

    appropriate for seeking a relationship between two sets of ratio data. Findings will be deemed

    11 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    significant if p < .05.

    Principles and Standards

    The APA Code of Ethics (2017) will be followed throughout this study. This will

    include presenting accurate data and correctly using and reporting statistical results. All sources

    will be properly cited.

    Participants’ personal information will be guarded and no one will know who did (or

    did not) participate in the study. Only the researcher will have access to the raw data and this

    data will be destroyed at the conclusion of PSY-520. The APA Ethics Code requires specific

    ethical attributes of good research in Standard 8: Research and Publication.

    Results

    The expectation for this study will be that the research hypothesis will be accepted:

    there will be a significant, negative correlation between sleep hours and stress. If so, this study

    will add to the body of knowledge on the topic of sleep by supporting the idea that reduced

    sleep quantity is associated with higher stress levels. Because this study will focus only on

    graduate students in psychology, this will be important information for those who are

    psychology graduate students as well as graduate school instructors and administrators.

    However, the focus on psychology graduate students may also limit the generalizability of this

    study.

    12 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    References

    Ablanedo-Rosas, J. H., Blevins, R. C., Gao, H. Teng, W., & White, J. (2011). The impact of

    occupational stress on academic and administrative staff, and on students: An

    empirical case analysis. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 33(5),

    553-564. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2011.605255

    American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of

    conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

    Brown, F. C., Buboltz, W. C., & Soper, B. (2006). Development and evaluation of the

    Sleep Treatment and Education Program for Students (STEPS). Journal of

    American College Health, 54(4), 231-237.

    Buchvold, H. V., Pallesen, S., Øyane, N. M. F., & Bjorvatn, B. (2015). Associations between

    night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise—a cross sectional study.

    BMC Public Health, 15, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2470-2

    Gunzelmann, G., Bryne, M. D., Gluck, K. A., & Moore, L. J. (2009). Using

    computational cognitive modeling to predict dual-task performance with sleep

    deprivation. Human Factors, 51(2), 251-260.

    https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720809334592

    Hildingh, C., & Baigi, A. (2010). The association among hypertension and reduced

    psychological well-being, anxiety and sleep disturbances: A population study.

    Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 24, 366-371. https://doi.org/10.111/j.1471-

    6712.200900730.x

    Hudson, S. A., & O’Regan, J. (1994). Stress and the graduate psychology student. Journal of

    Clinical Psychology, 50(6), 973-977. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-

    http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

    https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199411)50:6<973::AID-JCLP2270500623>3.0.CO;2-Q

    https://doi.org/10.111/j.1471-6712.200900730.x

    https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720809334592

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2470-2

    https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2011.605255

    https://doi.org/10.111/j.1471-6712.200900730.x

    13 SLEEP & ONLINE PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENTS

    4679(199411)50:6<973::AID-JCLP2270500623>3.0.CO;2-Q

    Myers, S. B., Sweeney, A. C., Popick, V., Wesley, K, Bordfeld, A., & Fingerhut, R.

    (2012). Self-care practices and perceived stress levels among psychology graduate

    students. Training & Education in Professional Psychology, 6(1), 55-66.

    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026534

    Orzel-Gryglewska, J. (2010). Consequences of sleep deprivation. International

    Journal of Occupational Medicine & Environmental Health, 23(1), 95-114.

    https://doi.org/10.2478/v10001-010-0004-9

    Peachey, J. T., & Zelman, D. C. (2012). Sleep education in clinical psychology

    training programs. Training & Education in Professional Psychology, 6(1),

    18-27. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026793

    Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (2013). Beginning behavioral research: A conceptual primer

    (7th ed.). Pearson.

    Saeed, Z., Hasa, Z., & Atif, M. (2015). Sleep patterns of medical students: Their

    relationship with academic performance: A cross sectional survey. Professional

    Medical Journal, 22(7), 919-923.

    Swanson, L. M., Aarnedt, J. T., Rosekind, M. R., Belenky, G., Balkin, T. J. & Drake, C. (2011).

    Sleep disorders and work performance: Findings from the 2008 National Sleep

    Foundation Sleep in America poll. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(3), 487-494.

    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026793

    https://doi.org/10.2478/v10001-010-0004-9

    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026534

    https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199411)50:6<973::AID-JCLP2270500623>3.0.CO;2-Q

      Final Proposal: Sleep and Online Psychology Graduate Students

      Sleep and Online Psychology Graduate Students

      Problem Statement

      Literature Review

      Advantages & Disadvantages

      Method

      Participants

      Materials

      Procedures

      Ethical Considerations

      Data Analysis Plan

      Prepare New Data

      Descriptive Statistics

      Analytic Procedures

      Principles and Standards

      Results

      References

  • PSY 510 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric
  • Overview
    The field of psychology is built upon rigorous research. Theories are constantly proposed, tested, supported, and invalidated through research studies that are
    communicated to the field via peer-reviewed research papers. As such, individuals in the field of psychology must be both informed consumers and educated
    producers of psychological research.

    This course is the first in the sequence of two research methods courses. In this first course, you will create a research proposal centered on a testable research
    question. In the second course, you will actually conduct research around your research question, guided by your proposal, and using your classmates as your
    research participants. Keep in mind when creating your research question and proposal that the topic must be one that is approachable and able to be answered
    by your colleagues. Research proposals that ask questions around diagnosable mental health disorders, suicide, or abuse of any kind will not be allowed, as these
    topics may be triggering for some students.

    The project is divided into four milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final
    submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Four, Six, and Eight. The final product will be submitted in Module Ten.

    This assessment addresses the following course outcomes:

    • Evaluate research designs in published studies for their appropriateness in addressing psychological research questions
    • Synthesize peer-reviewed research in psychology for supporting testable research proposals
    • Propose data collection strategies for developing methodologically sound research proposals
    • Select appropriate data analysis methods for informing valid and reliable research results
    • Apply the American Psychological Association’s principles and standards for creating professional, ethically sound research proposals

    Prompt
    For this assessment, you will create a research proposal centered on a testable research question and hypothesis, substantiated with peer-reviewed research. In
    the following course, Research Methods II, you will actually conduct research around your research question, guided by your proposal. You are required to use
    your Southern New Hampshire University classmates as your research participants, so keep in mind when creating your research question and proposal that the
    topic must be one that is approachable and able to be answered by your colleagues. You are prohibited from using anyone outside of Southern New Hampshire
    University for your study.

    Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

    I. Problem Statement: Describe the general topic you will address and its importance and relevance to real-world issues.

    II. Literature Review: In this section, you will use existing research on your subject and draw conclusions for informing your research proposal.
    a) Summarize existing, applicable research in the field around your topic, utilizing peer-reviewed sources.
    b) Identify the different research designs that have been used to generate knowledge on this topic, and describe how they differ.
    c) Differentiate between the research designs for their advantages and disadvantages in addressing the research questions, providing specific

    examples from the research.
    d) Evaluate the appropriateness of the research designs to the research questions, providing justification for your assertions. Which design seems

    most appropriate in addressing the question and why?
    e) Summarize what is unknown or uncertain about your topic, synthesizing the applicable existing research on the topic.
    f) Discuss the appropriateness of the data analysis procedures used in the literature as they relate to the American Psychological Association’s

    principles and standards. Consider the assumptions made and presentation of data.

    III. Research Question and Hypothesis
    a) Based on your research about the topic, create a testable research question.
    b) Create a testable hypothesis based on your research question and research about the topic, explaining the extent to which the research

    supports your hypothesis.
    c) Describe the variables that will be measured and/or manipulated in your study, and explain the selection of variables. Specifically, what

    independent and dependent variables will be used to test your hypothesis?

    IV. Proposed Methodology
    a) Outline who you plan to use as participants and how many participants you will need, providing justification.
    b) Describe the materials (surveys, etc.) that will be used in your study and why these materials are most appropriate for your proposal, justifying

    claims with resources.
    c) Describe the procedures you will use to collect your data and how these will appropriately address your research question.
    d) Discuss the ethical concerns involved in your study and the steps you will take to remedy them. Consider who will be studied, what risks they

    will be exposed to, and what steps will be taken to maintain the confidentiality of their responses and to obtain informed consent.

    V. Data Analysis Plan
    a) Explain what procedures you will use to prepare your raw data for analysis. If you have open-ended questions, how will they be coded? If you

    collected responses to multiple survey questions, how will the data be aggregated for analysis?
    b) Propose general analytical procedures that you will use to analyze your data, and explain how these procedures will help obtain valid and

    reliable research results.
    c) Describe which descriptive statistics that could be obtained from your data would be most informative in answering your research question and

    why.
    d) Discuss how your proposed data analysis methods are ethical and aligned to the American Psychological Association’s principles and standards.

    VI. Anticipated Results: What do you expect the results of your study to be, and how do your expected results complement or contradict the results in
    previous literature?

    Milestones
    Milestone One: Topic Selection, Search Terms, and Preliminary

    Research Question

    In Module Two, you will submit a description of the topic that you will focus on for the final project as well as a preliminary research question that will guide your
    paper. It is understood that your research question will likely change and evolve as you read the literature on your topic, but it is important to have a research
    question to guide your reading. You will also submit a list of search terms that you will use to find peer-reviewed articles on your topic in the Shapiro Library’s
    electronic databases. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone One Rubric.

    Milestone Two: Research Question, Hypothesis, and Annotated Bibliography
    In Module Four, you will submit a description of the research question and hypothesis (or hypotheses) that will guide your research. You will also submit an
    annotated bibliography of at least eight peer-reviewed sources. For each article, you will need to provide full bibliographic information, the abstract, and a
    summary of the key findings of the article and how they relate to your research question. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Two Rubric.

    Milestone Three: Initial Draft of Introduction and Literature Review
    In Module Six, you will submit an initial draft of your introduction and literature review. This paper should 1) introduce the general topic that you are
    researching, 2) provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the topic, and 3) introduce your research question and hypothesis. This milestone will be
    graded with the Milestone Three Rubric.

    Milestone Four: Initial Draft of Methods, Data Analysis, and Anticipated Results Sections
    In Module Eight, you will submit an initial draft of your methods, data analysis, and anticipated results sections. The methods section should describe the
    participants to be studied and the methods to be utilized for the proposed research project. The data analysis section should discuss the basic plan for analyzing
    the data, and the anticipated results section should discuss the expected findings. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Four Rubric.

    Final Submission: Research Proposal
    In Module Ten, you will submit your final project. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should
    reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded with the Final Product Rubric.

    Deliverables

    Milestone Deliverable Module Due Grading
    1 Topic Selection, Search Terms, and

    Preliminary Research Question
    Two Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric

    2 Research Question, Hypothesis, and
    Annotated Bibliography

    Four Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric

    3 Initial Draft of Introduction and Literature
    Review

    Six Graded separately; Milestone Three Rubric

    4 Initial Draft of Methods, Data Analysis, and
    Anticipated Results Sections

    Eight Graded separately; Milestone Four Rubric

    Final Submission: Research Proposal Ten Graded separately; Final Product Rubric

    Final Product Rubric
    Guidelines for Submission: Your research proposal must be 10–15 pages in length and adhere to standard formatting (Times New Roman 12-point font, one-inch
    margins) and must follow APA format using the most recent version of the APA style manual for the citations.

    Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (90%) Needs Improvement (70%) Not Evident (0%) Value
    Problem Statement Meets “Proficient” criteria and

    provides specific, concrete
    examples linking the topic to
    real-world issues

    Describes the general topic of
    the proposal and its importance
    and relevance to real-world
    issues

    Describes the general topic of
    the proposal, but does not
    describe its importance or
    relevance to real-world issues
    or has gaps in detail or accuracy

    Does not describe the general
    topic of the proposal

    3

    Literature Review:
    Existing Research

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    provides an especially well-
    integrated discussion of the key
    themes from the articles

    Summarizes existing, applicable
    research, utilizing peer-
    reviewed sources

    Summarizes existing research,
    utilizing peer-reviewed sources,
    but resources are not applicable
    to topic or summary has gaps in
    detail or accuracy

    Does not summarize existing
    research

    3.76

    Literature Review:
    Research Designs

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    provides specific, concrete
    examples of research designs
    utilized in previous literature

    Identifies different research
    designs used to generate
    knowledge on the topic and
    describes how they differ

    Identifies different research
    designs used to generate
    knowledge on the topic and
    describes how they differ, but
    description has gaps in accuracy
    or detail

    Does not identify different
    research designs used to
    generate knowledge on the
    topic

    6.26

    Literature Review:
    Advantages and
    Disadvantages

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    provides specific, concrete
    examples from the literature of
    the advantages and
    disadvantages of research
    designs

    Differentiates between research
    designs for their advantages
    and disadvantages in addressing
    the research question,
    providing specific examples
    from research

    Differentiates between research
    designs for their advantages
    and disadvantages in addressing
    the research question, but does
    not provide specific examples
    from research, or differentiation
    has gaps in accuracy or detail

    Does not differentiate between
    research designs for their
    advantages and disadvantages
    in addressing the research
    question

    6.27

    Literature Review:
    Appropriateness

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates a nuanced
    understanding of appropriate
    research design for a research
    question

    Evaluates the appropriateness
    of the research designs to the
    research questions, providing
    justification, and determines
    the most appropriate design,
    providing justification

    Evaluates the appropriateness
    of the research designs to the
    research questions, providing
    justification, but does not
    determine the most
    appropriate design

    Does not evaluate the
    appropriateness of the research
    designs to the research
    questions

    6.27

    Literature Review:
    Unknown

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    provides an especially well-
    integrated discussion of the key
    themes from the articles

    Summarizes what is unknown
    or uncertain about the topic,
    utilizing applicable research on
    the topic

    Summarizes what is unknown
    or uncertain about the topic,
    utilizing research, but resources
    are not applicable to topic, or
    summary has gaps in detail or
    accuracy

    Does not summarize what is
    unknown or uncertain about
    the topic

    3.76

    Literature Review:
    Principles and

    Standards

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates keen insight into
    the APA’s principles and
    standards as they apply to data
    analysis

    Discusses the appropriateness
    of the data analysis procedures
    used in the literature as they
    relate to the APA’s principles
    and standards

    Discusses the appropriateness
    of the data analysis procedures
    used in the literature, but does
    not relate these to the APA’s
    principles and standards, or
    discussion has gaps in accuracy
    or detail

    Does not discuss the
    appropriateness of the data
    analysis procedures used in the
    literature as they relate to the
    APA’s principles and standards

    6.26

    Research Question
    and Hypothesis:

    Research Question

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    creates an interesting research
    question that legitimately
    warrants further research

    Creates a testable research
    question based on the previous
    research around the topic

    Creates a testable research
    question, but question is not
    based on the previous research
    around the topic

    Does not create a testable
    research question

    3.76

    Research Question
    and Hypothesis:

    Hypothesis

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    provides specific and concrete
    evidence supporting the
    research hypothesis

    Creates a testable hypothesis
    based on the research question
    and research around the topic,
    explaining the extent to which
    the research supports the
    hypothesis

    Creates a hypothesis based on
    the research question and
    research around the topic, but
    does not explain the extent to
    which the research supports the
    hypothesis, hypothesis is not
    testable, or explanation has
    gaps in detail or accuracy

    Does not create a hypothesis
    based on the research question
    and research around the topic

    3.76

    Research Question
    and Hypothesis:

    Variables

    Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
    variables are
    especially well aligned to the
    research question

    Describes the variables that will
    be measured and/or
    manipulated in the study,
    explaining the selection of the
    variables

    Describes the variables that will
    be measured and/or
    manipulated in the study, but
    does not explain the selection
    of the variables, or variables are
    inappropriate, or description or
    explanation has gaps in detail or
    accuracy

    Does not describe the variables
    that will be measured and/or
    manipulated in the study

    4.7

    Proposed
    Methodology:

    Participants

    Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
    number and type of
    participants are especially well
    aligned to the research
    question

    Outlines the number of
    participants needed and who
    they are, providing justification
    for selection

    Outlines the number of
    participants needed and who
    they are, but does not provide
    justification for selection, or
    selection is inappropriate

    Does not outline the number of
    participants needed and who
    they are

    4.7

    Proposed
    Methodology:

    Materials

    Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
    materials are especially well
    aligned to the research
    question

    Describes the materials that will
    be used in the study and why
    the materials are most
    appropriate for the proposal,
    justifying claims with resources

    Describes the materials that will
    be used in the study and why
    the materials are most
    appropriate for the proposal,
    but does not justify claims with
    resources or has gaps in
    accuracy or detail

    Does not describe the materials
    that will be used in the study
    and why the materials are most
    appropriate for the proposal

    4.7

    Proposed
    Methodology:

    Procedures

    Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
    procedures are especially well
    aligned to the research
    question

    Describes the procedures
    proposed to collect data and
    how the procedures will
    appropriately address the
    research question

    Describes the procedures
    proposed to collect data and
    how the procedures will
    appropriately address the
    research question, but with
    gaps in detail or accuracy, or
    procedures are inappropriate

    Does not describe the
    procedures proposed to collect
    data and how the procedures
    will appropriately address the
    research question

    4.7

    Proposed
    Methodology:

    Ethical Concerns

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates a nuanced
    understanding of the types of
    ethical concerns that arise and
    steps to remedy them

    Discusses the ethical concerns
    involved in the study and the
    steps to remedy them

    Discusses the ethical concerns
    involved in the study, but does
    not propose steps to remedy
    them, or discussion or steps
    lack accuracy or detail

    Does not discuss the ethical
    concerns involved in the study
    and the steps to remedy them

    6.27

    Data Analysis Plan:
    Prepare Raw Data

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates a nuanced
    understanding of preparing
    data

    Explains the procedures to
    prepare raw data for analysis

    Explains the procedures to
    prepare raw data for analysis,
    with gaps in accuracy or detail,
    or procedures are inappropriate

    Does not explain the
    procedures to prepare raw data
    for analysis

    6.26

    Data Analysis Plan:
    Analytic Procedures

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates a nuanced
    understanding of the value of
    analytic procedures

    Proposes analytic procedures
    for analyzing data and explains
    how these will help obtain valid
    and reliable research results

    Proposes analytic procedures
    for analyzing data, but does not
    explain how these will help
    obtain valid and reliable

    Does not propose analytic
    procedures for analyzing data

    6.27

    research results, proposal lacks
    accuracy or detail, or
    procedures are inappropriate

    Data Analysis Plan:
    Descriptive

    Statistics

    Meets “Proficient” criteria, and
    descriptive statistics are
    especially well aligned to the
    research question

    Describes which descriptive
    statistics obtained from the
    data would be most informative
    in answering the research
    question and why

    Describes which descriptive
    statistics obtained from the
    data would be most informative
    in answering the research
    question, but does not explain
    why, or description has gaps in
    accuracy or detail

    Does not describe which
    descriptive statistics obtained
    from the data would be most
    informative in answering the
    research question

    6.27

    Data Analysis Plan:
    Principles and

    Standards

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates keen insight into
    the APA’s principles and
    standards as they apply to data
    analysis

    Discusses how the proposed
    data analysis methods are
    ethical, as outlined by the APA

    Discusses how the proposed
    data analysis methods are
    ethical, but does not relate
    these to the APA, or discussion
    has gaps in accuracy or detail

    Does not discuss how the
    proposed data analysis methods
    are ethical, as outlined by the
    APA

    6.27

    Anticipated Results Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    provides especially compelling
    rationale for why the
    anticipated results are being
    predicted

    Predicts results of the study and
    explains how these results will
    complement or contradict
    previous literature

    Predicts results of the study, but
    does not explain how these
    results will complement or
    contradict previous literature,
    or has gaps in detail or accuracy

    Does not predict results of the
    study

    3.76

    Articulation of
    Response

    Submission is free of errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, and
    organization and is presented in
    a professional and easy-to-read
    format

    Submission has no major errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, or organization

    Submission has major errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, or organization
    that negatively impact
    readability and articulation of
    main ideas

    Submission has critical errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, or organization
    that prevent understanding of
    ideas

    3

    Total 100%

      PSY 510 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric

      Overview

      Prompt

      Milestones

      Milestone One: Topic Selection, Search Terms, and Preliminary Research Question

      Milestone Two: Research Question, Hypothesis, and Annotated Bibliography

      Milestone Three: Initial Draft of Introduction and Literature Review

      Milestone Four: Initial Draft of Methods, Data Analysis, and Anticipated Results Sections

      Final Submission: Research Proposal

      Deliverables

      Final Product Rubric

    Feedback

    You have an excellent introduction to the topic. The annotated bibliography does not need to be included.  With the literature review, you need integrate the information from the annotated bibliography and thoroughly present the key themes of the articles, analyze the research design, and relate the information to the proposed study.  good job on the assignment. You addressed the elements appropriately. A few elements need to be expanded and the headings need to be in APA format (ie. specific headings are required in APA format – the example has the proper headings). See the comments in the rubric

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