HU The Communications of The Murder of Matthew Shepherd Question

Hate Speech Examination 1
Spring, 2022
Directions: Respond to question one. Then you may respond to two more of the remaining 5
questions. Respond to all questions with well-organized essays. Think of your responses as an
argument that you are asking me to accept. You should be sure to support your claims with
evidence in order to advance your argument. Your responses should be formatted with 12-point
font and one-inch margins. Please provide a cover page for your examination that includes: (a)
your name, (b) the identification of this document as “Examination 1 Hate Speech,” and (c) the
numbers of the three questions you responded to in the examination. Your examination should be
submitted to “drop box” in Sakai by 5 p.m. on March 1 as a Word document. If you fail to follow
these instructions, I will consider the examination not properly submitted and I will ask you to
resubmit the examination. I will insert my comments through “track changes” in Word.
1.Briefly describe the killing of Matthew Shepherd and the meaning of the event for the town of
Laramie. Use the concepts of guilt, purification, perfection, and scapegoating to analyze the
community of Laramie’s response to the Matthew Shepherd killing. Be sure to define each term
and provide specific and concrete examples of comments, performances, and rituals that will
illustrate the operations of the concepts mentioned above. How would you evaluate Laramie’s
attempt to respond to this hate crime? If you deem their response lacking, what would you
suggest they do differently. (20 points)
2. Define hate and hate speech. What characteristics constitute hate speech. What is hate speech
and what purposes does hate speech serve? What is the hate stratagem and what are its
constituent elements? Provide examples of hate speech or hateful messages that instantiate the
different elements of the hate stratagem? (20 points)
3. The text and class discussion have asked you to consider the relationship between hate speech
and violence. What is the relationship between hate speech and hate crime/ethnoviolence? What
do you think is at the core of this relationship? Provide examples where they are relevant to
supporting your argument. You may draw upon constructs we discussed that are useful for
operationalizing hateful discourse. (20 points)
4. Describe the history of the paramilitary right? Why is the paramilitary right so feverishly
committed to the Second Amendment and guns? Identify and provide examples of hateful
discourse from the Paramilitary Right. What role do conspiracy theories play in the discourse of
the paramilitary right? Provide examples. How does the term “Western Civilization” function in
this discourse? What work does this term do for the paramilitary right? (20 points)
5. Define and discuss the term “Nativism?” What do you think is being communicated with the
term “Nativist” in respect to citizenship and who “belongs” in a country? Do you think Nativist
discourse is hate speech or is it different from other forms of discourse discussed in The
Communication of Hate? Based on class readings, describe the relationship between Nativist
discourse and violence directed at documented workers, undocumented workers, and those
perceived as not “natural citizens of the United States?” How does the term “Western
Civilization” function in this discourse? What work does this term do for Nativists? (20 points)
6. What role has religion played in the hate movement in the United States? Identify and discuss
the different race religions we talked about in class and that you read about in The
Communication of Hate. Describe these religions in detail and explain the fundamental beliefs
that appear to constitute these religions. Why do you think people within the hate movement
would bother to develop these religions and hold “church services” offering opportunities for
their members to worship? In other words, what kind of work is being done by these religions for
people in the American hate movement. (20 points)
Nature of Hate Speech
And Subtypes
Broad Characteristics of Hate Speech
• 1. Seeks to politicize social differences
Broad Characteristics of Hate Speech
• 1. Seeks to politicize social differences
• 2. Characterized by attempts to construct
outgroup in negative terms.
Broad Characteristics of Hate Speech
• 1. Seeks to politicize social differences
• 2. Characterized by attempts to construct
outgroup in negative terms.
• 3. Context is important.
Elements of Hate Stratagem
• 1. Inflames emotions to view ingroup as
significant and indispensable.
• 2. Denigrate a specific outgroup and all who
belong to the outgroup.
• 3. Inflict permanent harm on outgroup
(isolation and alienation).
• 4. Rhetorically conquer outgroup
The Hate Stratagem
• 1. Inflame emotions by constructing a positive
in-group identity.
Inflame the in-group
• We want to have a White Christian America
again . . . then we can help look after the
other people in the world. The bible says that
if we can take care of our Christian brothers
and sisters and live a good Christian life then
our country will be blessed. . . . and there
aren’t terrible things happening in America to
White Christians . . . then we can be a blessing
to all the children of the world. (Waltman,
2003, p. 27)
Inflame the in-group
• The truth is that there are women and kids in
the KKK. Women are in The Knights because
they care about their country, they care about
their race, and they care about kids. Kids are
in the KKK because they want to learn about
their heritage and they want to make the
world a better place. (Waltman, 2003, p. 27)
Inflame the in-group
• Recall news report on Ben Nathanial Smith:
• White people are responsible for civilization,
advances in medicine. White people built the
• White people are descendent of kings.
The Hate Stratagem
• 1. Inflame emotions by constructing a positive
in-group identity.
• 2. Denigrate the out-group
Denigrate the Out-group
• Children visiting this Web Page learn that, following
reconstruction, a Jewish cabal of bankers and
politicians sympathetic with newly freed slaves
attempted to destroy White people.

• Children learn, “White people had to salute black
people on the street. Whiskey sellers sold liquor to
blacks who excited about no longer having a curfew
would roam the countryside hurting men, women, and
children (p. 29). Additionally, “Troops of armed men
would not allow the white people to defend
themselves.” (p. 29)
Denigrate the Out-group
• The Knights tell children that this sort of
persecution continues today as a “liberal
media” conspires to vilify the KKK, “Usually
the programs that they make about the KKK
on TV just show really mean acting men.
Sometimes the men they show are made to
act really dumb. . . . That’s because the very
rich people who own the TV shows and
newspapers and movies don’t like white
Christians. . . .
Denigrate Out-group
• Recall Benjamin Nathaniel Smith:
• “Jews are parasites.”
• “African American savages.”
• General invoking of stereotypes to make
outgroup less than Aryans
The Hate Stratagem
• 1. Inflame emotions by constructing a positive
in-group identity.
• 2. Denigrate the out-group
• 3. Inflict permanent harm on out-group
Inflict permanent harm on out-group
• “Do you think the people of Alabama want a
Jew family living in the Governor’s mansion?
(see Whillock, 1995, p. 42).
• As Whillock notes, this also serves as an attack
on Siegelman, questioning his status as a
“good Christian.”
Inflict permanent harm on out-group
• The founders of America didn’t want slaves to
keep coming to America. They were afraid
because in some small islands in the Tropics
where there was slavery—when there became
so many black people—they all got together
and murdered all the white people—moms,
dads, and kids. . . . They killed them all.
Inflict permanent harm on out-group
• When there would start to be bigger groups of
black people in different towns . . . they would
start to riot and steal or kill. . . . Yes, there
were still nice black people, but the more
there were the more they would hate white
people. Today there are many black people in
The Hate Stratagem
• 1. Inflame emotions by constructing a positive
in-group identity.
• 2. Denigrate the out-group
• 3. Inflict permanent harm on out-group
• 4. Rhetorically conquer the out-group
Rhetorically conquer the out-group
• Just because a person is black or another race
doesn’t make them bad people. But you
should always be careful where you go and
who your friends are. Young girls should be
extra careful. Many black boys feel extra cool
if they hurt a white girl. Some kids don’t learn
until its [sic] too late. (Waltman, 2003, p. 30)
Rhetorically conquer the out-group
• Pleasure of murder myth:
• Cartoons depicting murder of the enemies of
the Aryan race.
• Turner Diaries and Hunter depicting the
pleasure a terrorist receives from killing his
Heuristics in Hate Speech
• Defined
• Types of Heuristics
– Credibility
– Consensus
– Liking
• For example, Just For Kids made liberal use of
quotations by Abraham Lincoln who children
have come to understand as the “great
emancipator” and respected historical figure
to suggest that Lincoln was indifferent and
contemptuous of enslaved Africans.
• So child learns KKK thinks the same way as
• “We want to make known that we are the
largest, oldest, and most powerful Klan
• Children and women want to belong to KKK
• One night when the club was meeting they
accidentally came across a band of negroes.
But this time instead of the White people
getting murdered, the negroes ran away
screaming. They thought the men in their
costumes were ghosts of dead soldiers who
had died during the Civil War . . . These
deeply religious men felt that God had given
them a peaceful way to defend themselves.
Role of Myths
• Myths defined
• Types of myths
Types of Myths
• Identity
• Eschatological
• Societal
• Cosmological
Reasons Myths are Persuasive

1. Presented as historical truth.
2. Presented as THE truth.
3. Myths give meaning to the present.
4. Myths provide a sense of community
5. Dramatize struggles between good and evil.
6. Myths are ideological
Do we get lost in narrative and lose critical
thinking skills?
Hate Speech and Hate Crime
• Hate Crime is a way of co-constructing
identities of victim and offender.
• Hate crime sends a message like hate speech
• Hate crime and speech are constituted in
• Hate crime and speech both subdue
community. (policing social differences)
Steps to Violence
• HS characteristic 1: Promotion of positive ingroup identity.

• White People Builders, White/Western

• Moral Aryan White Tolerance
Steps to Violence
• HS characteristic 2: Denigration of out-group identity.

• The construction of the Other impersonally and as
interchangeable class representatives.

• De-individualized Images, Stereotypes, Standard
• The rhetor impersonalizes and distances the Other without
diminishing the potential threat posed by the Other.

• Jew as Vampire Myth,
Black Savage Myth,
Repulsive Jew Myth
Steps to Violence
• HS characteristic 3: The rhetor symbolically constructs
and initiates an adversarial relationship with the Other.

• Black predator Myth, Jew as Pornographer Myth,
White Tolerance Myth

• ZOG Myth & Jewish International Conspiracy Myth

• Sleeping White Man Myth,
Treacherous Violent Jew Myth
Steps to Violence
• HS characteristic 4: The rhetors express a desire
to physically assert, and derive pleasure from,
dominance over the Other.

• RAHOWA Myth; Pan Aryan Nationalism Myth;
Devine Retribution Myth

• Pleasure of Murder Myth Vigilant Aryan
Dispassionate Aryan
The Christian Right and Hate
A Very, Very, Very Small Subset of
Any religion can be weaponized
• Hindus have expressed hatred toward
Muslims over national Indian identity.
• Buddhists have expressed hatred toward
Muslims over national Thai identity.
• Muslims and Christians have expressed hate
Cultural Issues of Extreme Christian
• Abortion
• Homosexuality
• Life is given by God (all life is the will of God)
• Termination of pregnancy defies God’s will
• Operation Rescue Quote
Army of God
• Don Benny Anderson, Matthew Moore, and
Wayne Moore kidnaped Dr. Hector Zevallos
• Army of God Manual
• Army of God Clinic Bombings
• Support of Paul Hill
• Summary of Bombings
• Sexual congress is for marriage and the
production of children.
• Rick Santorum and erotic sex.
• Homosexuality is more than wrong.
• Homosexuality is a threat to Western Civilization.
Language Used to Dehumanize
• Pedophilia
• Barbarity
• Bestiality
• Disease
Examples: People who Stood with
Governor Pence
• Micah Clark, Head of the American Family Association of
• Claims that “homosexuality has no societal benefit…and its
individually destructive and dangerous.“
• Curt Smith, President of Indiana Family Institute:
• Admits: “…I believe homosexuality is harmful to all,
including society, and is against the teachings of the God of
the Bible…”
• Equates homosexuality with bestiality and adultery
Examples: People who Stood with
Governor Pence
• Eric Miller, Exec. Director of Advance America,
Indiana’s leading anti-LGBT org.:
• Claims “[b]aning same-sex marriages and civil
unions will prove to be the greatest moral
battle of this generation.”
• Distributed fear flier falsely claiming that
pastors could be jailed for preaching against
homosexuality once same-sex marriage passes
James Dobson: Focus on the Family
• Equates gay men and women with Nazis
• Against God’s will
• Separating one from God
Other Views
• Some Christian argue that gay men and
lesbians want to destroy them.
• Gay agenda
• Recruit young people
Non-Heterosexual Orientations are a
Function of:
• (a) Weak fathers (Hedges, 2006, p. 96),
• (b) Children who don’t disconnect from their mothers (p. 98),
• (c) Insufficiently masculine fathers (Hedges, 2006, p. 99),
• (d) Mothers who do not cede authority to their husbands (Hedges,
2006, p. 99),
• (e) Mammas boys (Hedges, 2006, p. 100), and
• (f) Women who live outside traditional roles and don’t depend on
men for their identity (Hedges, 2006, p. 107)
Reparative Therapy
• Form of counseling intended to take the gay
• Convince patient that they should dislike the
parent for making them gay.
• Symbolically punching effigy of the parent.
• Cuddle with a strong male figure (for gay boys)
Reparative Therapy Harms
• Doesn’t work.
• Assault on self-esteem.
• Suicide is not uncommon
• Political movement
• America founded as a Christian nation
• Liberals and secular humanists ruining
• Most hard core desire a Christian Theocracy
People and Events
• Robert Jefferies (Mega Church in Dallas)
• Introduced Rick Perry
• “Do we want a candidate who is a good, moral
person . . . or one who is a born-again follower
of the lord Jesus Christ?” (Crowley, 2011)
According to Crowley, the crowd whooped
that they would prefer the “born again
follower of the lord Jesus Christ.”
Left Behind Movie Series
• World after the Rapture
• Anti-Christ advocates for world peace,
tolerance, multi-culturalism, United Nations
• Secular world persecutes people who become
Christians following the rapture
Discussion Question 2 of 3
• Hate Speech grounded in the valorization of
some identities and the vandalizing of other
identities. To what extent is this inherent in
Christianity? Why or why not? To what extent
is this inherent in any religion? Why or why
Question 3 of 3
• Does the “will of God” reflect a kind of
• If the will of God may be used to justify
withholding abortion from a woman, what
other political views might it justify?

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