In a network with an 8-layer architecture and protocol hierarchy, applications generate messages of length M bytes. Assuming each layer has a different header size: 20-byte, 20-byte, 20-byte, 100-byte, 30-byte, 20-byte, 40-byte and 150-bytes for Layers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 respectively: What fraction of the network bandwidth is filled with headers? Please show your calculations and briefly explain.
The performance of a network application is influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (number of bits per second that the network can transport) and the latency (the delay experienced by a bit travelling over the network). Identify the requirements of the following applications in terms of bandwidth and latency, and then give an example of a specific network technology that is suitable to use for each of these applications:
File transfers between Melbourne and Germany
Video streaming to a large remote area with many users near Broome, WA
Connecting a large number of real-time low data transmission requirement sensors for critical event notification such as a set of sensors in a house or car
Transferring a large file from local computer to a local server
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