Leadership Style Essay

The cross-cultural literature emphasizes the strong connection between culture and leadership behaviors. There are important reasons to investigate the impact of national culture on leadership styles in today’s world. The old view that the leadership is identical all over the world is now being displaced with the standpoint that the leadership behaviours, attitudes and values differ because of the different national cultures (Boyacigiller and Adler, 1991; Hofstede, 1980).
Many researchers assert that the style and effectiveness of the leaders vary vastly as a result of the cultural forces in which leaders work. While some scientists maintain the thesis that universal leadership behaviour exists (Bass and Avolio, 1993; Dorfman and Ronen, 1991), other asserts that unique cultural characteristics such as language, religion and values determine different leadership styles in different societies (Hofstede, 1993, Ronen and Shenkar, 1985, Triandis, 1993). In the same time some scholars give evidence for the validity of both of the two theories (Dorfman, 1997, Bass, 1990).
National culture The purpose of this paper is to show whether the leadership style is determined by the national culture in some aspect. To show this relation firstly we have to clarify the meaning of these terms – leadership style and national culture. One of the most prominent researchers in the field of culture is Geert Hofstede. According to him “culture is the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one human group from another” (Hofstede, 2004). Another researcher in this field is Robert House.

He describes culture for his GLOBE research project as follow: “Shared motives, values, beliefs, identities and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives and are transmitted across age generations” (House, 2002). It is clear that the notion “culture” is very flexible term but the core of the meanings of all different definitions is however the same. All possible definitions which are at the root of the term culture basically share one and the same.
The term culture can be described as a group of people which share similar traditions, values and beliefs. In this paper also the term national culture is described as culture of a definite nation. It should however be noticed that culture is not always confine within borders of one country. Even in the borders of a specific country cultures may vary. Obviously culture is a very extensive term but all the different definitions of culture can be summarized in some way and culture can be described as shared set of values.
A good way to make a careful study of this topic is to use Hofstede’s model of “national culture”. According to Hofstede, the nationalities can be classified by five prominent dimensions: 1) individualism-collectivism, 2) uncertainty avoidance, 3) power distance and 4) masculinity, long-term orientation. These five dimensions are confirmed by gathered data from many different sources (Hofstede, 2001). The analysis made by Sondergaard showed that the dimensions of Hofstede are largely corroborated (Sondergaard, 1994).
Hofstede’s concept of power distance shows how the different types of leadership behaviours are preferred within a particular culture. High power distance may lead to very autocratic, controlling type of leadership, while a low power distance may give a rise to a more democratic approach. Hofstede found that in countries with low power distance, employees preferred consultative manager. Whereas in countries with high power distance, individuals preferred autocratic, persuasive or majority-voted democratic leader. The second Hofstede’s cultural dimension is so called uncertainty avoidance.
It shows to what extend a particular culture is tolerant toward ambiguity and uncertainty. Low uncertainty avoidance may lead to a more laissez-faire leadership, while high uncertainty avoidance may lead to a more bureaucratic and controlling leadership. The individualism-collectivism dimension propound that high individualism may lead to a more competitive type of leadership, whereas high collectivism may lead to a more consultative behaviour. The masculinity dimension suggests that high masculinity means-a country experiences a higher degree of gender differentiation.
In such cultures, males tend to dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure. A low masculinity score indicates that the society has a lower level of differentiation and inequity between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society. Long term-orientation: This fifth dimension is added by Hofstede later on. It measures the degree to which people are long-term oriented. This can be interpreted in this way: whether people think more for today and the present or they are living toward the future.
Hofstede’s cultural research can be viewed as one of the leading cultural researches in the world and his dimensions are used all over the world today. Another researcher who gives his contribution for better explanation of the national cultures around the world is Shalom Schwartz. He made his research in 1990. At first the study is composed of 20 countries but it has been enlarged through the years. Schwartz’s research is conducted among schoolteachers and university students. Schwartz measure culture using the following three bipolar dimensions.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Leadership Style Essay
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay
Achiever Essays
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

error: Content is protected !!
Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code RESEARCH