The following reading assignment is on two review articles and one research article on lithium-ion batteries. More information is located in the document below, along with the articles that are needed to be read.
The provided reading materials consist of two review articles and one research article on lithium-ion
batteries. These articles describe a wide-range aspect of lithium-ion batteries including the basic
functions, mechanism, degradation as well as a potential recycling approach of lithium-ion batteries.
Answers must be written in an organized, concise, and legible manner or your assignment will be
returned without being graded.
Your complete assignment must be stapled. 4points penalty will be imposed for an unstapled
This assignment is worth 40 points.
Please read the review article entitled “Recent advances in rechargeable battery materials: a chemist’s
perspective” and answer the following questions in your own words:
1) The three main components of lithium-ion batteries are i) cathode electrode, ii) anode electrode,
and iii) electrolyte. Provide one example of materials for each component. What is a characteristic of
the chosen materials that makes them suitable as anode, cathode, and electrolyte?
2) Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable, and therefore, they are classified as secondary batteries.
Explain the mechanism of the recharge ability of these batteries.
3) The uses of lithium-ion batteries are wide-spread despite of Li being a rare metal among the alkaline
metals such as Na. Please use the concept of cell potentials (or reaction potentials) to explain the
advantage of Li-ion batteries over Na-ion batteries.
4) Recent advancements of lithium-ion batteries have been made by employing solid polymer
electrolytes. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these type of electrolytes?
Please read the research article entitled “Sustainable recovery of cathode materials from spent lithiumion batteries using lactic acid leaching system” and answer the following questions in your own words:
5) What is the purpose of an acid-leaching process?
6) The article describes that the main drawback of using inorganic acids such as HCl, HNO3, and
H2SO4for a leaching process in a presence of strong oxidizing agent such as H2O2is the generation of
toxic gases. What is the toxic gas produced from the reaction between HCl (aq) and H2O2 (aq)?
Support your answer with a balanced chemical equation.
7) What are the metal ions being recycled? What is the form of impurities of these ions that were
identified after the heat treatment of the spent lithium-ion battery samples?
8) The article also describes the optimization of the leaching process by varying reaction parameters
such as concentration of lactic acid, S/L ratio, temperature, amount of H2O2, and time. Please
provide the optimized conditions of this leaching process.
9) What is the role of H2O2and lactic acid in the leaching process?
Please read the research article entitled “Aging mechanisms of electrode materials in lithium-ion
batteries for electric vehicles” and answer the following questions in your own words:
10) The recharge ability of lithium-ion batteries relies on the reversible insertion and extraction of Li ions
between the two electrodes. One of the aging mechanisms of these batteries involves depletion of Li
ions. Provide two causes for the loss of lithium ions. Briefly explain.
11) Recommended operating temperatures of lithium-ion batteries are between –20°C and60°C. The use
of these batteries at elevated temperature or in direct sunlight may lead to the generation of
excessive heat, ignition, and lose of efficiency. Briefly explain the effect of heat on the efficiency of
Lastly, in your own word, write a short summary (
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