Photography Discussion

Develop verbal/textual descriptions for a series of 3 photos that youhave selected based on a theme or topic for your choice. Post each ofthe three images in the midterm CANVAS Discussion with the descriptionof each image directly below it.

For each image:

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Photography Discussion
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay
  • Provide the image and a link to where you found it.
  • Brieflynote the publishing context where you located it [what was the platformor publication: an online newspaper, a blog, a marketing website, aWikipedia article, etc.)

  • Write a description of the image intended for someone in the audience of the venue where it was published
  • Writea meta-analysis explaining how you decided what was important todescribe in the photos and if there are things that you intentionallyleft out.When writing your meta-analysis of your verbal descriptions, itis worth considering how your approach relates to concerns ofguidelines in the assigned readings from this past week: GeorginaKleege, “Audio Description Described,” Joel Snyder, “Audio Description:The Visual Made Verbal, ” and Sharon Marcus, Heather Love, and StephenBest, “Building a Better Description,” 1
    Photography Assignment
    Student’s name
    Institution Affiliation
    Course
    Professor
    Date
    2
    Photography Assignment
    https://www.vox.com/22954833/russia-ukraine-invasion-strategy-putin-kyiv
    The context of the image is that the image has been published by an online newspaper called
    VOX. The image has been inserted in an article explaining the progress and damages of war
    going on in Ukraine.
    The image contains two soldiers who are army officers who appear to be well armored. The
    image also contains a burning vehicle and intense smoke from the burning. The image contains a
    scattered and disorganized environment that is empty.
    I decided what was important to describe in the photo on the following basis: First, the intention
    of the photo; the primary intent of the photo was very important in guiding the things I described
    in the photo. Looking at the photo well, it is very definite that the photo was to communicate the
    effects and the intensity of the war as it is going on in Ukraine. On this basis therefore, it is
    important that I describe the aspects of the photo that makes it ass communicative of the adverse
    effects of the war as possible. Looking at the burning vehicle in the photo, it is evident that the
    3
    war that is taking place is quite intense and costing. The theme of the issue being talked about
    that is war is also important in helping me to describe the given elements of the photo. For
    instance, when talking about war, there is expected to be burning down of properties and things.
    There is also expected to be soldiers or the people who are fighting or rather engaging in the war.
    The environment of the photo that is the scattered and seemingly isolated environment as I have
    described is as a result of the theme of the photo. The photo is talking about war, in a war
    situation, it is very definite to expect the environment that is isolated and with lots of smoke and
    fire.

    20 Student Engagement Strategies for a Captivating Classroom


    The context of this photo is that the photo was found on an educational blog that was talking
    about engagement strategies that make a classroom captivating. The image contains a teacher
    4
    who is putting on a smiley face. It also has students who have all lifted their hands up probably
    wanting to answer a question that has been asked. The image also contains a board which has a
    table that has not been filled completely meaning that it has blank spaces.
    I decided what was important to describe in the photo basing on the following: first, the intention
    of the podcast. Looking at the podcast, it is very definite that it was to communicate and inform
    on the various engagement strategies that can be used to make the classroom captivating. It is
    therefore important that the aspects in the photo communicate something about the classroom
    engagement being captivating. It is on that basis that I had to describe the teacher who is putting
    on a smile because definitely that is one of the strategies of making classroom engagements
    better and captivating and also leaners who have put their hands up to show that the activeness of
    the; leaners is a strategy of making classroom interactions captivating.
    The theme of the blog is also important in providing guidance on the things that I describe in the
    photos. The theme of the blog was to talk about the strategies that can be used to make the
    classroom interactions captivating. The description and mentioning of the board with a with a
    table that appears to be having missing gaps is just an indicator of a strategy that can be used to
    make the classroom interactions meaningful and captivating. This is on the view that for the
    classroom interaction to be captivating, the teacher has to find a way of engaging leaners and this
    can be by ensuring that they also have questions to answer and gaps to fill,
    5
    https://unsplash.com/images/things/health
    The context of this photo is that the photo has been found on a blog platform that contains
    several images that are to communicate several aspects concerning health matters.
    The photo contains, a pair of sports shoes. It also contains a pressure measuring equipment. It
    contains several fruits and vegetables and seeds. For instance, there are coriander, broccoli,
    tomatoes and a pawpaw. The image also contains a stethoscope.
    I decided what was important to describe in the photo because of the intent if the blog. The blog
    was evidently to communicate on several ways of ensuring that one keeps healthy and remains
    fit. The sports shoes in the photo are important in ensuring that one is exercising and doing
    enough exercises that will help to keep them healthy. This is why it was important to mention the
    shoes. The foodstuff and the seeds mentioned are also important in helping one to remain
    healthy. Broccoli, coriander and the seeds are responsible for proper circulation of the blood in
    the body system and therefore meaning that they immensely contribute to the process of keeping
    the body healthy. This therefore explains why it is important to mention them as part of the photo
    given that they are the elements that help the photo to fulfill its intent.
    6
    The theme of what is being talked about and in this case health is critical in informing the
    mentioning of some of the parts of the photo that I described and mentioned. For instance, when
    we mention health, there are many things that come in the mind and among them it is the heart.
    When we talk about the heart, we must have the equipment that are necessary in checking on the
    health status of the heart. This therefore makes it necessary to mention the stethoscope and
    equipment that is used to check the heartbeats so as to establish whether and individual is healthy
    or not.
    Audio Description: The Visual Made Verbal
    Joel Snyder , National Captioning Institute , VA, USA
    Abs tract: • f11dioDescription (AO) pro111desn verbal version of the visual for the benejir of people who are blind or have
    low vision . Succmcl descrip//ons pret1se/y limed lo occ11ronly durmg rhe pauses 111dialog11eor s1gnificanl so1111d
    eleme11ts
    of pe1forming arls or In media allows persons wilh vision impairments 10 have greater uccess 10 !he images integral la a
    given work of arr, AD enhances film and video, broadcasr relevision, live pe 1for111ances and museum exhib 1tions–a wide
    range of human endeUl’or. While mrended as an access technique . AD has been shown to be useful for anyone who wcmrs
    10lruly notice and appreciate a more /111/perspective on any visual event. For ins1ance. by usmg audio description . children :S
    books can be mad~ acce.s.~1ble10kids ,vho have law vision or are blind •and* can help develop mor e sophiwcated language
    ski/ls/01· all kids . A picture 1s worth /fl()() words? Maybe . But !he a> His palm hovers above the
    baby bird. He lays his hand lightly
    over the tiny creature. Smil ing,
    Mohammed curls his fingers
    around the chick and scoops 3.
    3. – Vivid verbs help conjure images in the mind’s
    eye.
    it into his hands. He stands and strokes
    its nearly featherless head with
    a fingertip.
    6 0 I :02:08: 12 00:00:00:23 -· :-:- -:-… [CH IRP ING/RUSTLE: 01]
    JOEL SNYDER
    7 01:02:09:12 00:00:17:19
    >> Mohammed starts as the bird
    nips his finger. He taps 4. his
    linger on the chick·s gaping
    beak. He tills 4. his head back.
    4. – Description, like much poetry , is written to
    be heard. Alliteration adds variety and helps lo
    maintain interest
    then drops it forward. Mohammed
    tips 4. the chick into his front
    shirt pocket. Wrapping his legs
    and arms around a tree trunk,
    Mohammed climbs.
    8 0 I :02:28: IO 00:00:0 I :04 — — — -…[HEAVYBREATHI G/CL!MBING : 11)
    9 0 I :02:39: IO 00:00: 17: 19 –:–:–:->> He latches onto a tangle of
    thin. upper branches . His legs
    Aai\ for a foothold. Mohammed stretches
    an arm between a fork in the trunk of the
    tree ,md wedges in his h..:,1d and shoulder.
    His shoes slip on the rough bark.
    IO OI :02:55: 11 00:00:00:23
    …[SCRAPfNG :03)
    II OI :02:58: 11 00:00: 16:04
    » He wraps his legs around the
    lower trunk. then uscs his arms
    to pull himself higher. He
    rises into thicker foliage and
    hold onto tangles of smal ler
    branches. Gaining his footing,
    Mohammed stands upright and
    cocks his head LO one side.
    12 01:03:13:20 00:00:01:04 –:–:–:-…[CH[RPING/FLUTTER]
    13 0 I :OJ: 18: 15 00:00: I 0: 15 – :–:–:->> An adult bird flies from a nearby branch. 5.
    5 – What to include? T his image is important-t he adult bird returns in the nut sce ne.
    Mohammed extends an open hand. He
    touches a branch and runs his fingers
    over wide, green leaves.
    14 0 I :03 :27: 11 00:00:00:23 ··–:- -:–:-…fRUSTLfNG :03)
    15 01:03:30:11 00:00:14:08
    > I le pats his hand d wn tht:
    length of”U1ebranch . His fingers trace the
    smooth bark of the upper branches ,
    search the network of connecting tree
    limbs, and discover their joi nts.
    16 0 1:03:43:20 00:00:00:23 ——-…[RUSTLE :02]
    17 0103:45:20 00:00:05:06 01 :03:50:26
    >> Above his head, Mohammed ‘s
    finger find a dense mass of
    woven twigs–a bird’ s nest.
    18 0 I :OJ:50:26 00:00:00:23
    …[CHIRPING :03)
    19 0 1:03:53:26 00:00:07:15
    >> Smiling, he removes the chick
    from his shirt pocket and drops
    it gently into the nest beside
    another fledgling.
    20 01:04:01:00 00:00:00:23
    …[CHIRPING :OJ]
    2 1 01:04:03:04 00:00:13:04
    >> He rubs the top of the
    chick’s head with his index 6.
    6 – Be specific — precision creates image s!
    finger. Mohammed wiggles his
    finger like a worm 7. and taps a
    chick’s open beak. Smiling, he
    7 – Simi les paint pictures!
    slowly lowers his hand.
    Venues for Audio Description
    In the United States, in ar.:as where a television station is equipped lO participa te. AD lets all television
    viewers to hear what they cannot sec. It’s accessible
    via a special audio channel availab le on stereo televisions. Viewers selec t the SAP (secondary audio
    program) channe l in order to hear the regular program audio accompanied by the descriptions , precisely timed to occur only during the lapses between
    dialogues. Sighted viewers appreciate the dcsc ripti(lns as wel I. lt”s television for blind, low vision and
    sighted people who want to be in the kitchen washing
    dishcs while the show is on.
    To a limited degree-in approximate ly 200 movie
    theaters nationwide-aud io description is available
    for first-run film scree nings; similarly. description
    can be found on several hundred VHS videotape
    titles alLhough the VH format doesn’ t allow for tht
    descr iption to be turned off. DVDs are a far more
    suitable format, allowing for an audio menu, and the
    TI-TEINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE ART JN OCIETY, VOLUME 2
    ability to select description if desired; unfortunately
    only se era! dozen DVD ticlescun-emly otler description.
    There are now federal provisions regarding AD.
    in particular Section 508 requiring description with
    g vcrnment-produccd media, and the Federal Communications Commission (F ) rule, cun·ently under
    review. In 2002, the FCC mandated description for
    broadcast television several years ago but that rule
    was successfully challenged by the television and
    film industry in the courls. ow the US Congress is
    considering legislation that would reinstate the
    mandate just as captioning has been required for
    most television broadcasts in the US for over 20
    years.
    In live performing arts settings, AD is offered free
    usually at designated performances. People desiring
    this service may rect:ive headphones attached to
    small receivers, about the sin of a cigarette pack.
    Prior to the show, a live or taped version or the program notes i$ transmitted through the headphones
    after which, the trained desi.;riber narrates the performance from another part of the theater via a radio
    or infrared transmitter using concise objective descriptions all slipped in between po11ionsof dialogue
    0 1· songs.
    In museums, using AD techniques for the de.~cription of static images and exhibitions, docents find
    that they develop better use of language and more
    expressive vivid, and imaginative museum tours,
    greatly appreciated by all visitors. In this way docenllcd tours arc more appropriate for the lowvision
    visitor and docents find tl1at their regular tours are
    enhanced. A lively and vivid descriptive process
    enables docents to make the museum exrc ricnce
    more accessible and more meaningful for everyone.
    Recorded AD tours, spel.:ificallygeared to people
    with low vision, are increasingly common. Combined
    with directional information, these recorded tours
    enable vi~itors who are blind to use a simple handhdd audio player to tour at lea~t a portion of the
    museum independently and ll’ith new access to the
    visual clements of exhibitions. Other curators are
    interested in having certain videos within an exhibit
    or a p:micular film described.
    The Audio Describer
    I have trained des ribers in twdve different states
    and six different countrie · and I thought it might be
    of some interest to learn what it talces10 offer description in ways that will be most useful.
    I recall being simply amazed when l fim encountered ir Arthur Conan Doyle’s brilliant detective. Sherlock Holmes. Brilliant … and incredibly
    observant. In developing AD for television. a video,
    for theater, for a museum – in any context- ! cmphas-
    izc four elements, the first of which is all about the
    skill that herlock Holmes honed:
    I.
    2.
    3.
    Observation: The great philosopher Yogi Be1i-a
    said it best: ·’You can sec a lot just by looking.”
    An effective describer must increase his level
    of awareness and become an active “sec-er,”
    develop his ‘visual literacy,” notice the visual
    world with a heightened sense of acuity, and
    share those images. Miss Helen Keller told it
    like it is she said, ‘ Those who have never
    sufft:red impairment ot’s ight or hearing seldom
    make the fullest use of these blessed faculties.
    Their eyes and ears take in all sights and sounds
    hazily, without concentration and with little
    appreciation.”
    Editing: Next, describers must edit or cul I from
    what they see. selecting what is most valid, what
    is most important, what is most critical to an
    understanding and appreciation of an event. In
    addition. choices are made based on an understanding of blindness and low visioo going from
    the gener:.ilLothe specific, use of color, inclusion of directional information , and so on.
    Language: We transfer it all to words–objec live, vivid, specific, imaginatively drawn words,
    phrases and metaphors. Is the Washington
    Monument 555 feet tall or is it as high as fifty
    elephants stacked one on top of the other? How
    many different words can you use to describe
    someone moving along a sidewalk? Why say
    “walk” when you cun more vividly describe the
    action with “sas hay,” ‘ stroll.” “skip ,”
    “stumble ,” or “saunter”?
    But good describers also strive for simplicity,
    succinctness “less is more.” In writing to a
    friend Blaise Pascal once noted: “I have only
    made this letter longer because I have not had
    the time to mnke it shorter.” While a describer
    must use language which helps folks see
    vividly–and even sec beyond what’s readily
    apparent-,it’s important to maintain a degree
    ofobjecti ity-describcrs sum it up with the acronym ·’WYSIWYS”: ” What You See Is What
    You Say.”
    The best audio describer is sometimes referred
    to as a “verbal camera lens.” objectively recounting visual aspects of an exhibition. Qualitative
    judgments get in the way they constitute a subjective interpretation on the part of the describer
    and are unnecessary and unwanted. Let listeners
    conjure their own interpretations based on a
    commentary that is as objective as possible. So
    you don’t say “He is furious” or “She is upset.”
    Rather, ‘·He’s clenching his fist” or “She is
    crying.” The idea is to let the audience make
    JOEL , NY DER
    4.
    lheir own judgments perhaps their eyes don’t
    work so wdl. but their brains and their interpretative skills are intact.
    Vocal Skills: Finally, in addition to building a
    verbal capability. the describer develops the
    vocal instrument Lhrough work with speech and
    oral interpretatio n fundamentals. We make
    meaning wilh our voices one quick exercise I
    use involves the phrase:
    Woman without her man is a savage.
    ay ii aloud so that it means just Lheopposite ;
    Woman: Without her. man is a savage.
    So, effective describe r must learn to ··re-s e” the
    world around usto truly notice wha t it is perceived
    with the eye.sand then express the pertinent aspects
    of those images with precise and imaginative language and vocal techniq ues that rende r the visual
    verbal.
    Audio Description and Literacy
    Not too long ago I conducted a workshop in New
    Haven with day care workers and reading teachers
    on what I think represents a new application for audio
    description. We experimented with developing more
    descriptive language to use when working w/ kids
    and picture books. Some of these books are deficient
    with respect Lo the language skills they involve -they rely on the pictures to tell the story. But the
    teacher trained in audio tlescription techniques would
    never simply hold up a picture ofa red ball and read
    the text:· · cc the ball.” He or she might add: ”T he
    ball is red-just like a fire engine. I think that ball is
    as large as one of you! It’s as round as the sun–a
    bright red circle or sphere .” The teacher has introduced new vocabulary invited comparisons, and
    u ed mct.nphor or simi le – with toddlers! By using
    audio dest.:ription, I think that these books will be
    made accessible to kids who have !ow vision o r are
    blind •a11d• help develop more sophist icated language skills for al\ kids. A picture is worth I000
    words? Maybe. But the audio describe r might say
    that a fc\V well-chosen words can conjure vivid and
    lasting images.
    Indeed. al NCI.Described Media we’re quite proud
    to be the folks who provide desc ription- for the first
    time – for Sesame Street. We were quite hearten.:tl
    by a particular letter we received last year from a
    blind parent of sighted children who for the first time
    could follow along with her kids the antics of Elmo.
    Bert, Ernie, and al I the other denizens of Sesame
    Street.
    Access for All
    Over the past twenty years. I have considered it quite
    a privilege to train d.:scrihers and do AD workshops
    in rwenty ~rates in the United States and in nine
    countries around the world, most recently in Moscow
    for the 2nd Annual Moscow International Disability
    Film Festival. I mention that because I want to share
    with you a strong impression from three days of
    training I conducted there – and 1 found the s.ime
    sort of pirit severa l years earlier when I conducted
    live dnys of training in Sofia, Bulgaria . In both
    countries, the trainees and my hosts taught me that
    audio descript ion, access to the arts, is about Democracy. Here I am, coming from the United tates, a
    prosperous, democratic n::uion,and yet access ibility
    in the U.S . is often not viewed as a right, as a reflection of the principles upon which our nation was
    founded. People in Sofia, Bulgaria in St. Pctershurg,
    and in Moscow are wrestling with economic problems attendant to any new democ racy yet to them
    democracy means ··access to everyon.:.” I learned
    that from my friends there and I share that wonderfully inclusive notion with you hen:.
    We have an immense and \’ariccl culture in the
    United tares. There is no reason why a person with
    a visual disability must also be culturally disadv:rnt·
    aged. All people need to be ful I p.irticipants in their
    nation’s cultural life. It must be rem..:mbered that the
    ·’able bodied” among us ore only temporarily
    so-there is only a thin line between ability and
    disability. With a focus on people’s ahilities, we will
    come much closer to greater inclusion and total access.
    About the Author
    Joel nyder
    Joel nyder is known intern.1tionally as one of the lirst audio describers . He began descr ibing arts events in
    1980 with the world ·s fir ·t ongoing audio description service in Washington, DC. His work made hundreds of
    live theater product ions accessi ble LO visually impaired audience members: in media, Mr. nydcr used the ·ame
    technique to enhance PB ‘Ame rican Playhouse productions, ABC and Fox network broadcasts, feature films.
    the IM/\X film “Rlue Planet” and the Planetarium show “And A Star To rcer Her By” at the Smithsonian Institution’s ational Air and Space Museum . As Director oJTiescribed Media for the National Captioning Institute,
    he leads a stalTthat produces description for nationally broadcast films and television series including ‘·Sesame
    Strc ·t’· and DV s. Mr. nydcr·s Audio Description Associates develops AO tours for museums throughout the
    ·l d States indudin the Enabling.Garden Ut the hicago Botanic Garden the ationul Aquar ium in Baltimore
    and th!?J P. ul Getty Mw. um in Lu · , ngd cs. Intemationally h introduced description tccbniqu · in Jap n.
    I, c:I.R nwni> His palm hovers above the
    baby bird. He lays his hand lightly
    over the tiny creature. Smil ing,
    Mohammed curls his fingers
    around the chick and scoops 3.
    3. – Vivid verbs help conjure images in the mind’s
    eye.
    it into his hands. He stands and strokes
    its nearly featherless head with
    a fingertip.
    6 0 I :02:08: 12 00:00:00:23 -· :-:- -:-… [CH IRP ING/RUSTLE: 01]
    JOEL SNYDER
    7 01:02:09:12 00:00:17:19
    >> Mohammed starts as the bird
    nips his finger. He taps 4. his
    linger on the chick·s gaping
    beak. He tills 4. his head back.
    4. – Description, like much poetry , is written to
    be heard. Alliteration adds variety and helps lo
    maintain interest
    then drops it forward. Mohammed
    tips 4. the chick into his front
    shirt pocket. Wrapping his legs
    and arms around a tree trunk,
    Mohammed climbs.
    8 0 I :02:28: IO 00:00:0 I :04 — — — -…[HEAVYBREATHI G/CL!MBING : 11)
    9 0 I :02:39: IO 00:00: 17: 19 –:–:–:->> He latches onto a tangle of
    thin. upper branches . His legs
    Aai\ for a foothold. Mohammed stretches
    an arm between a fork in the trunk of the
    tree ,md wedges in his h..:,1d and shoulder.
    His shoes slip on the rough bark.
    IO OI :02:55: 11 00:00:00:23
    …[SCRAPfNG :03)
    II OI :02:58: 11 00:00: 16:04
    » He wraps his legs around the
    lower trunk. then uscs his arms
    to pull himself higher. He
    rises into thicker foliage and
    hold onto tangles of smal ler
    branches. Gaining his footing,
    Mohammed stands upright and
    cocks his head LO one side.
    12 01:03:13:20 00:00:01:04 –:–:–:-…[CH[RPING/FLUTTER]
    13 0 I :OJ: 18: 15 00:00: I 0: 15 – :–:–:->> An adult bird flies from a nearby branch. 5.
    5 – What to include? T his image is important-t he adult bird returns in the nut sce ne.
    Mohammed extends an open hand. He
    touches a branch and runs his fingers
    over wide, green leaves.
    14 0 I :03 :27: 11 00:00:00:23 ··–:- -:–:-…fRUSTLfNG :03)
    15 01:03:30:11 00:00:14:08
    > I le pats his hand d wn tht:
    length of”U1ebranch . His fingers trace the
    smooth bark of the upper branches ,
    search the network of connecting tree
    limbs, and discover their joi nts.
    16 0 1:03:43:20 00:00:00:23 ——-…[RUSTLE :02]
    17 0103:45:20 00:00:05:06 01 :03:50:26
    >> Above his head, Mohammed ‘s
    finger find a dense mass of
    woven twigs–a bird’ s nest.
    18 0 I :OJ:50:26 00:00:00:23
    …[CHIRPING :03)
    19 0 1:03:53:26 00:00:07:15
    >> Smiling, he removes the chick
    from his shirt pocket and drops
    it gently into the nest beside
    another fledgling.
    20 01:04:01:00 00:00:00:23
    …[CHIRPING :OJ]
    2 1 01:04:03:04 00:00:13:04
    >> He rubs the top of the
    chick’s head with his index 6.
    6 – Be specific — precision creates image s!
    finger. Mohammed wiggles his
    finger like a worm 7. and taps a
    chick’s open beak. Smiling, he
    7 – Simi les paint pictures!
    slowly lowers his hand.
    Venues for Audio Description
    In the United States, in ar.:as where a television station is equipped lO participa te. AD lets all television
    viewers to hear what they cannot sec. It’s accessible
    via a special audio channel availab le on stereo televisions. Viewers selec t the SAP (secondary audio
    program) channe l in order to hear the regular program audio accompanied by the descriptions , precisely timed to occur only during the lapses between
    dialogues. Sighted viewers appreciate the dcsc ripti(lns as wel I. lt”s television for blind, low vision and
    sighted people who want to be in the kitchen washing
    dishcs while the show is on.
    To a limited degree-in approximate ly 200 movie
    theaters nationwide-aud io description is available
    for first-run film scree nings; similarly. description
    can be found on several hundred VHS videotape
    titles alLhough the VH format doesn’ t allow for tht
    descr iption to be turned off. DVDs are a far more
    suitable format, allowing for an audio menu, and the
    TI-TEINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE ART JN OCIETY, VOLUME 2
    ability to select description if desired; unfortunately
    only se era! dozen DVD ticlescun-emly otler description.
    There are now federal provisions regarding AD.
    in particular Section 508 requiring description with
    g vcrnment-produccd media, and the Federal Communications Commission (F ) rule, cun·ently under
    review. In 2002, the FCC mandated description for
    broadcast television several years ago but that rule
    was successfully challenged by the television and
    film industry in the courls. ow the US Congress is
    considering legislation that would reinstate the
    mandate just as captioning has been required for
    most television broadcasts in the US for over 20
    years.
    In live performing arts settings, AD is offered free
    usually at designated performances. People desiring
    this service may rect:ive headphones attached to
    small receivers, about the sin of a cigarette pack.
    Prior to the show, a live or taped version or the program notes i$ transmitted through the headphones
    after which, the trained desi.;riber narrates the performance from another part of the theater via a radio
    or infrared transmitter using concise objective descriptions all slipped in between po11ionsof dialogue
    0 1· songs.
    In museums, using AD techniques for the de.~cription of static images and exhibitions, docents find
    that they develop better use of language and more
    expressive vivid, and imaginative museum tours,
    greatly appreciated by all visitors. In this way docenllcd tours arc more appropriate for the lowvision
    visitor and docents find tl1at their regular tours are
    enhanced. A lively and vivid descriptive process
    enables docents to make the museum exrc ricnce
    more accessible and more meaningful for everyone.
    Recorded AD tours, spel.:ificallygeared to people
    with low vision, are increasingly common. Combined
    with directional information, these recorded tours
    enable vi~itors who are blind to use a simple handhdd audio player to tour at lea~t a portion of the
    museum independently and ll’ith new access to the
    visual clements of exhibitions. Other curators are
    interested in having certain videos within an exhibit
    or a p:micular film described.
    The Audio Describer
    I have trained des ribers in twdve different states
    and six different countrie · and I thought it might be
    of some interest to learn what it talces10 offer description in ways that will be most useful.
    I recall being simply amazed when l fim encountered ir Arthur Conan Doyle’s brilliant detective. Sherlock Holmes. Brilliant … and incredibly
    observant. In developing AD for television. a video,
    for theater, for a museum – in any context- ! cmphas-
    izc four elements, the first of which is all about the
    skill that herlock Holmes honed:
    I.
    2.
    3.
    Observation: The great philosopher Yogi Be1i-a
    said it best: ·’You can sec a lot just by looking.”
    An effective describer must increase his level
    of awareness and become an active “sec-er,”
    develop his ‘visual literacy,” notice the visual
    world with a heightened sense of acuity, and
    share those images. Miss Helen Keller told it
    like it is she said, ‘ Those who have never
    sufft:red impairment ot’s ight or hearing seldom
    make the fullest use of these blessed faculties.
    Their eyes and ears take in all sights and sounds
    hazily, without concentration and with little
    appreciation.”
    Editing: Next, describers must edit or cul I from
    what they see. selecting what is most valid, what
    is most important, what is most critical to an
    understanding and appreciation of an event. In
    addition. choices are made based on an understanding of blindness and low visioo going from
    the gener:.ilLothe specific, use of color, inclusion of directional information , and so on.
    Language: We transfer it all to words–objec live, vivid, specific, imaginatively drawn words,
    phrases and metaphors. Is the Washington
    Monument 555 feet tall or is it as high as fifty
    elephants stacked one on top of the other? How
    many different words can you use to describe
    someone moving along a sidewalk? Why say
    “walk” when you cun more vividly describe the
    action with “sas hay,” ‘ stroll.” “skip ,”
    “stumble ,” or “saunter”?
    But good describers also strive for simplicity,
    succinctness “less is more.” In writing to a
    friend Blaise Pascal once noted: “I have only
    made this letter longer because I have not had
    the time to mnke it shorter.” While a describer
    must use language which helps folks see
    vividly–and even sec beyond what’s readily
    apparent-,it’s important to maintain a degree
    ofobjecti ity-describcrs sum it up with the acronym ·’WYSIWYS”: ” What You See Is What
    You Say.”
    The best audio describer is sometimes referred
    to as a “verbal camera lens.” objectively recounting visual aspects of an exhibition. Qualitative
    judgments get in the way they constitute a subjective interpretation on the part of the describer
    and are unnecessary and unwanted. Let listeners
    conjure their own interpretations based on a
    commentary that is as objective as possible. So
    you don’t say “He is furious” or “She is upset.”
    Rather, ‘·He’s clenching his fist” or “She is
    crying.” The idea is to let the audience make
    JOEL , NY DER
    4.
    lheir own judgments perhaps their eyes don’t
    work so wdl. but their brains and their interpretative skills are intact.
    Vocal Skills: Finally, in addition to building a
    verbal capability. the describer develops the
    vocal instrument Lhrough work with speech and
    oral interpretatio n fundamentals. We make
    meaning wilh our voices one quick exercise I
    use involves the phrase:
    Woman without her man is a savage.
    ay ii aloud so that it means just Lheopposite ;
    Woman: Without her. man is a savage.
    So, effective describe r must learn to ··re-s e” the
    world around usto truly notice wha t it is perceived
    with the eye.sand then express the pertinent aspects
    of those images with precise and imaginative language and vocal techniq ues that rende r the visual
    verbal.
    Audio Description and Literacy
    Not too long ago I conducted a workshop in New
    Haven with day care workers and reading teachers
    on what I think represents a new application for audio
    description. We experimented with developing more
    descriptive language to use when working w/ kids
    and picture books. Some of these books are deficient
    with respect Lo the language skills they involve -they rely on the pictures to tell the story. But the
    teacher trained in audio tlescription techniques would
    never simply hold up a picture ofa red ball and read
    the text:· · cc the ball.” He or she might add: ”T he
    ball is red-just like a fire engine. I think that ball is
    as large as one of you! It’s as round as the sun–a
    bright red circle or sphere .” The teacher has introduced new vocabulary invited comparisons, and
    u ed mct.nphor or simi le – with toddlers! By using
    audio dest.:ription, I think that these books will be
    made accessible to kids who have !ow vision o r are
    blind •a11d• help develop more sophist icated language skills for al\ kids. A picture is worth I000
    words? Maybe. But the audio describe r might say
    that a fc\V well-chosen words can conjure vivid and
    lasting images.
    Indeed. al NCI.Described Media we’re quite proud
    to be the folks who provide desc ription- for the first
    time – for Sesame Street. We were quite hearten.:tl
    by a particular letter we received last year from a
    blind parent of sighted children who for the first time
    could follow along with her kids the antics of Elmo.
    Bert, Ernie, and al I the other denizens of Sesame
    Street.
    Access for All
    Over the past twenty years. I have considered it quite
    a privilege to train d.:scrihers and do AD workshops
    in rwenty ~rates in the United States and in nine
    countries around the world, most recently in Moscow
    for the 2nd Annual Moscow International Disability
    Film Festival. I mention that because I want to share
    with you a strong impression from three days of
    training I conducted there – and 1 found the s.ime
    sort of pirit severa l years earlier when I conducted
    live dnys of training in Sofia, Bulgaria . In both
    countries, the trainees and my hosts taught me that
    audio descript ion, access to the arts, is about Democracy. Here I am, coming from the United tates, a
    prosperous, democratic n::uion,and yet access ibility
    in the U.S . is often not viewed as a right, as a reflection of the principles upon which our nation was
    founded. People in Sofia, Bulgaria in St. Pctershurg,
    and in Moscow are wrestling with economic problems attendant to any new democ racy yet to them
    democracy means ··access to everyon.:.” I learned
    that from my friends there and I share that wonderfully inclusive notion with you hen:.
    We have an immense and \’ariccl culture in the
    United tares. There is no reason why a person with
    a visual disability must also be culturally disadv:rnt·
    aged. All people need to be ful I p.irticipants in their
    nation’s cultural life. It must be rem..:mbered that the
    ·’able bodied” among us ore only temporarily
    so-there is only a thin line between ability and
    disability. With a focus on people’s ahilities, we will
    come much closer to greater inclusion and total access.
    About the Author
    Joel nyder
    Joel nyder is known intern.1tionally as one of the lirst audio describers . He began descr ibing arts events in
    1980 with the world ·s fir ·t ongoing audio description service in Washington, DC. His work made hundreds of
    live theater product ions accessi ble LO visually impaired audience members: in media, Mr. nydcr used the ·ame
    technique to enhance PB ‘Ame rican Playhouse productions, ABC and Fox network broadcasts, feature films.
    the IM/\X film “Rlue Planet” and the Planetarium show “And A Star To rcer Her By” at the Smithsonian Institution’s ational Air and Space Museum . As Director oJTiescribed Media for the National Captioning Institute,
    he leads a stalTthat produces description for nationally broadcast films and television series including ‘·Sesame
    Strc ·t’· and DV s. Mr. nydcr·s Audio Description Associates develops AO tours for museums throughout the
    ·l d States indudin the Enabling.Garden Ut the hicago Botanic Garden the ationul Aquar ium in Baltimore
    and th!?J P. ul Getty Mw. um in Lu · , ngd cs. Intemationally h introduced description tccbniqu · in Jap n.
    I, c:I.R nwni

    Achiever Essays
    Calculate your paper price
    Pages (550 words)
    Approximate price: -

    Why Work with Us

    Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

    We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

    Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

    We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

    Free Unlimited Revisions

    If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

    Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

    All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

    Original & Confidential

    We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

    24/7 Customer Support

    Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

    Try it now!

    Calculate the price of your order

    Total price:
    $0.00

    How it works?

    Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

    Place your order

    Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

    Proceed with the payment

    Choose the payment system that suits you most.

    Receive the final file

    Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

    Our Services

    No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

    Essays

    Essay Writing Service

    No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

    Admissions

    Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

    An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

    Reviews

    Editing Support

    Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

    Reviews

    Revision Support

    If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

    Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

    Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code RESEARCH