Prince Sultan University Outbreak of Covid Essay

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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Online Home Learning: An Explorative
Study of Primary Schools in Indonesia
Article · May 2020
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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology
Vol. 29, No. 5, (2020), pp. 4809 – 4818
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Online Home Learning: An
Explorative Study of Primary Schools in Indonesia
Ratna Setyowati Putri1, Agus Purwanto 2* , Rudy Pramono3 , Masduki Asbari4,
Laksmi Mayesti Wijayanti5, Choi Chi Hyun6
Pelita Harapan University, Indonesia
Corresponding email: agozpor@gmail.com
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify the constraints of the online teaching and
learning process at home as a result of the unprecedented situation with the pandemic
COVID-19. The study used an exploratory case study, and for the research approach, a
qualitative case study method was used to obtain information about the constraints and
consequences of the pandemic COVID-19 on teaching and learning activities in primary
schools. In this study, the respondents were 15 teachers and parents of two primary
schools in Tangerang, Indonesia. A list of semi-structured interview questions was
developed based on the related literature and was used to collect in-depth information
from the respondents. The findings of this research revealed some challenges and
constraints experienced by students, teachers, and parents in online learning. The
challenges related to students were: limited communication and socializing among
students, a higher challenge for students with special education needs, and longer screen
time. Parents saw the problem was more related to a lack of learning discipline at home,
more time spent to assist their children’s learning at home – especially for children below
Grade 4 in Primary School, a lack of technology skills, and higher internet bills. Teachers
identified more challenges and constraints, including some restrictions in the choices of
teaching methods normally applicable in a regular face-to-face class, less coverage of
curriculum content, lack of technology skills that hinder the potential of online learning,
the lacks of e-resources in Indonesian language resulting in more time needed to develop
e-contents, longer screen time as a result of e-content creating and giving feedback on
students’ work, more intense and time-consuming communication with parents, the
challenge for better coordination with colleague teachers, principals, and a higher internet
bill.
Keywords: teaching and learning process, Covid-19, pandemic, explorative study, online
learning, home learning
INTRODUCTION
The pandemic COVID-19 is the first and foremost health crisis in the world. Many
countries have decided to close schools, colleges, and universities as a precaution measure
to its spread. The United Nations (UN) claimed that education is one of the sectors
affected significantly by the pandemic. Even worse, school closures happened on a broad
scale, and so unprecedented that disturb learning and teaching. The ABC News (March 7,
2020) reported that school closures have occurred in more than dozens of countries due to
the COVID-19 outbreak. The UNESCO states that this corona pandemic threatens 577
million students in the world.
Although Indonesian governments and school leaders had started on the watch of
further spreading outside China, still the announcement of school closures was a shock for
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most educators and parents. As a consequence, the government and related institutions
must present alternative educational processes to replace face-to-face interaction in a
regular class. By mid of March 2020, started by international schools in Jakarta and
Tangerang area, more and more schools have begun home learning. A few days later, the
Indonesian government released the policy of learning from home for schools and higher
education. In a relatively short lead-time, all educational institutions were shifted from
face-to-face to online learning. This sudden change resulted in “chaos”, especially
because students were approaching the national exam in Indonesia, which was normally
conducted in March, April, or May, depending on their grade level. It was to all related
parties’ relief that the government announced the cancellation of the National Examination
(UN) this year. In fact, the national exams for Grade 6 of Primary School (SD), Grade 9
of Middle School (SMP), and Grade 12 of High School (SMA) were previously planned
to be eliminated in 2021. The plan was pushed forward to the year 2020 as a response to
the COVID outbreak, in line with government regulation about social restrictions.
All levels of education from elementary schools/ ibtidaiyah, Junior High Schools/
Madrasah Stanawiyah, and High Schools/ Madrasah Aliyah, to tertiary institutions under
the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture and those under the Indonesian
Ministry of Religion are impacted by the school closure. Not all educational institutions
are ready for the sudden shift. Some schools may be equipped with some sort of
technology embedded in their regular face-to-face class. Even so, they find it quite
challenging to upskill their shareholders with the technology required for distant online
learning and teaching in such a short time. Most schools in Indonesia, however, do not
have such a privilege in terms of resources and facilities for online learning. Such a
condition has posed extra challenges to their school communities. Not all students are
accustomed to online learning. Moreover, many teachers and lecturers are not yet
proficient in teaching using internet technology, especially in various regions in
Indonesia.
The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the impact of Covid-19
pandemic on learning and teaching in primary schools in Tangerang. The study used a
qualitative explorative method for obtaining the information.
RESEARCH METHODS
This research is an explorative case study to obtain information about the
consequences of Covid-19 pandemic on learning and teaching in primary schools. The
sample size was determined based on the need to achieve depth and wealth of description.
According to Guetterman (2015), the sample size is not a matter of representative
opinions and views, but rather a matter of wealth of information. In this study, the
respondents were 15 teachers and parents of two primary schools located in Tangerang,
Indonesia. One of the schools is a national school, and the other is an international school.
For confidentiality purposes, respondents are given the initials R1-R15.
Table 1. Profile of Respondents
Initial
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
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Gender
Male
Female
Female
Male
Female
Age
27
38
46
38
44
Status
Married
Married
Married
Single
Married
Education
S1
S1
S1
S1
S1
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R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15
Male
Female
Female
Female
Female
Female
Female
Male
Female
Female
36
38
39
27
52
51
54
43
41
36
Married
Married
Married
Single
Single
Married
Married
Married
Married
Single
S1
S1
S2
S1
S1
S2
S2
S1
S2
S2
Primary data was collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers and
parents, while the secondary data was from published articles, journals, and books. The
sample size was limited to 15 respondents who live in Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia. The
area was chosen because of its unique position as a satellite city of Jakarta, which is the
capital city of Indonesia. Its strategic location makes Tangerang one of the areas quickly
impacted by any changes made in the capital city, including policies and regulations.
According to the data from Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Banten, there are
1,016 Primary Schools in Tangerang region, consisting of 759 public schools and 257
private schools (Dikdasmen, 2020) in the 153.9 kilometer-square area. The number
includes at least 20 international schools in the area. The number excludes the number of
Ibtidaiyahs (Islam-based schools) in the area. The closure of schools in the Tangerang has
affected all schools in the area.
This research is an exploratory case study, and the samples were selected using
the purposive sampling method to achieve the research objectives. There is no limit to the
number of respondents to make a purposive sample, provided the desired information can
be obtained and generated (Bernard, 2002). To conduct a case study research, Creswell
(2013) provides some recommendations for observations and sample size, ranging from
no more than four to five. In the case study, the respondents are interviewed until data
saturation was reached, and no more new information is obtained (Guest et al., 2006;
Krysik and Finn, 2010). The interviews were recorded, then verbally transcribed. For the
analysis and interpretation of data, thematic data analysis guidelines (Creswell, 2009) are
used because it is the most appropriate for any research that seeks to explore several
interpretations (Alhojailan, 2012). In the thematic analysis, “all possible interpretations
are possible” (Alhojailan, 2012, p. 10). The reason for choosing thematic analysis is that
“a rigorous thematic approach can produce in-depth analysis that answers certain research
questions” (Braun and Clarke, 2006, p. 97). After a rigorous analysis, researchers describe
the findings in four main themes.
The following interview questions were used to obtain information about the impact or
Covid-19 pandemic on learning and teaching:
1. Explain the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic experienced by students related to
their learning and teaching activities
2. Explain the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic experienced by parents related to
learning and teaching activities
3. Explain the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic experienced by teachers on learning
and teaching activities
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RESEARCH RESULTS
The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the impact of the
Covid-19 pandemic on learning and teaching activities in elementary schools in
Tangerang. The statements are the English translation of participants’ original responses
without any editing.
One of the respondents (R6) stated that “the students are “forced” to do distance
learning without any adequate facilities and infrastructure at home” (R6). Another
respondent (R5) added, “Students have not had a culture of distance learning yet because
so far the learning system implemented is through face-to-face,” also “not all teachers are
adept at using internet technology or social media as a learning tool”.
Some respondents mentioned the standards as their main concerns.
“No standard system as guidelines for home learning yet” (R3).
There is no standard system in supervising students and teachers in the home learning
process ” (R2).
Some respondents expressed their concerns about the extra expense they had to pay.
“Extra expense for buying internet quota” (R1).
“Need to buy more internet quota” (R4)
“Teachers’ expenses increase in buying quota.” (R3)
“Teachers need to buy more internet quota” (R2)
Some respondents pointed out problems faced by parents:
“As a parent, I must spend more extra time with my children, helping them with their
home learning” (R3).
“Parents become teachers for their children.” (R1).
“I have to learn together with my children.” (R3)
“I have a headache arranging Zoom schedules of my three children. I always look
forward to weekends.” (R7)
“As a parent and a teacher as well, I have to divide my attention between teaching my
sixth-grade students and teaching my own two little children. It is not easy, sometimes.”
(R14)
“Parents of students with special learning needs must closely monitor and help their
children.” (R15)
The impacts on students were said as follows:
“Schools have been closed for such a long time, making children bored.” (R6)
“Children begin to get bored at home and want to go to school soon to play with their
friends.” (R2)
“I think children lose their social life. At school, they can play and interact with their
friends, but this time they cannot.” (R5)
“This home learning is even harder for students with special learning needs. In the
regular face-to-face class, some of them have had difficulty concentrating, even more in
online learning like this.” (R15)
As for teachers, the responses include the following:
“Teachers’ expenses increase for quota purchases.” (R3)
“Teachers feel tired of staying at home and want to return to school to interact with
students soon.” (R5)
“Bored being at home starts to kick in.” (R6)
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“I have to work until late at night to prepare for home learning.” (R8)
“Checking and giving feedback to students took a long time. (R9)
As with technology, teachers stated:
“I don’t know how to do this and that. I need help with technology, and I have to learn
fast.”(R11)
“My internet is unstable at home. I was suddenly logged out from my online class when
teaching.” (R10)
Related to the effects on the curriculum and assessment, teachers pointed out some main
points:
“As an art teacher, I have to find something students can still do at home with materials
they can simply find at home. I have to modify my learning outcomes.” (R11)
“Some aspects of learning cannot be observed, such as their social skills and cooperation.
“I understand it is hard for fourth graders to collaborate online. This condition will affect
assessment and reporting.” (R12)
“I cannot cover the learning outcomes as fast as a face-to-face class.” (R8)
“I have to check with students what sports equipment they have at home before I can plan
my PE (Physical Education) class. I try to find something to substitute for the proper
equipment.” (R13)
DISCUSSION
The respondents’ statements were analyzed under students, parents, and teachers
for ease of reference.
Impact on Students
Respondents reported that students feel they were forced to shift to home learning
without adequate facilities and infrastructure at home. Laptops, computers, or mobile
phones and internet access are crucial for smooth home learning. Respondents from the
international school said that the obstacle was not on the readiness of the facilities.
Students with adequate infrastructure at home may also experience challenges with home
learning because distance learning is not part of the learning culture yet. Most schooling
depends heavily on face-to-face, with some blended learning in more advanced schools.
Students are accustomed to being in school to interact socially and physically meet with
their friends. Although the interactive online sessions enable students to meet virtually
with their teachers and friends, a respondent who teaches the first graders stated that the
interaction is awkward. Not all students responded the same as they normally do in faceto-face interaction.
In addition to getting used to socializing through an online platform, students
need time to adapt to distance learning. Some respondents reported it took more teachers’
effort than the normal face-to-face class to build students’ understanding.
The significant increase in children’s screen time also becomes a concern.
Participation in synchronous online interactive learning where the class virtually meet and
access to asynchronous learning materials posted in the learning platforms used by the
schools are at least two of the main reasons for the increase of screen time.
Students with special learning needs are struggling with the distance learning
setting. A respondent who is part of the learning support team mentioned that most of the
students with special learning needs have a shorter attention span. These students are
impacted greatly by online home learning. The learning support team has a periodical
checking in with the students, but parents would mostly have to spend time assisting or
monitoring these students’ learning at home.
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According to Zapalska (2006), a student who learns best in a particular way must
be exposed to a variety of learning experiences to become a more flexible online learner.
Drago’s (2004) findings show that online students are more likely to have a stronger
visual and read-and-write learning style. Furthermore, students with strong read-and-write
and those with strength in all four other learning styles tend to evaluate the effectiveness
of the course lower than others. On the other hand, students with aural or read-and-write,
and students who are not strong in any learning style tend to evaluate the effectiveness of
the course higher than other students.
According to Watjatrakul (2016), neuroticism and openness to experience affect
students’ intention to adopt online learning through the perceived values of online
learning. Specifically, students who are open to experience pay more attention to the
quality of online learning. On the other side, more neurotic students avoid stress because
they are not familiar with the situation in which they learn. Besides, students tend to adopt
online learning when they feel it meets their emotional and social needs. For example,
students want new and exciting courses, and online learning meet those needs. Online
learning also provides flexibility in which students work at their own pace and level of
ability and enjoy the challenges, freedom, and independence.
Impact on parents
Parents were quick to point out that the expense on internet quota increased as the
consequence of online learning, and it was an extra expense that parents had to bear. Next
to extra spending on the internet, parents also pointed out the relatively demanding time
they have to spend assisting their children in home learning. It is notably higher when
their children are in lower grades of Primary School because they have to assist their
children in setting up and troubleshooting the device for online learning while they
themselves can be technologically challenged. Parents working from home had to tackle
double roles as workers and parents, while parents who still had to go to work faced
another dilemma for their unavailability for assisting their children’s learning from home.
Impact on teachers
The sudden shift from face-to-face to long-distance online learning forced
teachers to use the technology. Not only the facilities and infrastructure that schools had
to ensure teachers had available in order to run home learning, but also their technical
skills. Many had to acquire the required technology in a short time to respond to the need
for online home learning. Respondents identified that more senior teachers struggled more
with the use of technology than their fellow younger teachers. Schools provided training
and technical support to teachers. Nevertheless, it took time for teachers to adapt to the
new mode of learning and teaching, resulting in the possibility for an adverse impact on
the quality of learning and teaching.
Chakraborty (2014) revealed several factors that can create exciting learning
experiences for online learners. The main factors are as follows: creating and maintaining
a positive learning environment, build learning communities, provide consistent feedback
in a timely manner, and use the right technology to deliver the right content. All
respondents of the study who are teachers showed an understanding of the factors
mentioned by Chakraborty. Some mentioned that the school’s guideline for home learning
included those some of those factors.
The fact is, the culture of distance learning has not been part of Indonesian life
yet. The country has been going to more digital learning; yet, distance learning, especially
for younger students, has not been firmly established. Most, if not of all this time, learning
is conducted through face-to-face. Teachers are accustomed to being in school to interact
with students. If technology is used, it is normally used in a blended learning setting.
Unprecedented distance learning compels teachers to make adjustments to the
written, taught, and assessed curriculum. Some of the learning outcomes of the fourth
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Vol. 29, No. 5, (2020), pp. 4809 – 4818
term may need adjustments due to the constraints of home learning. The Physical
Education and Visual Arts programs, for example, have to be revamped to adjust with
whatever is doable at home. Likewise, learning outcomes of other subjects must be
revisited to ensure that they can be delivered through online home learning, without
handing over the responsibility to teach to parents at home.
Likewise, adjustment is needed to the taught curriculum or the learning and
teaching method. Developing the strategies needed to teach and learn online successfully
requires an understanding of learning styles and how they can be handled well in the
online environment (Lewis, 2015). As is the case in face-to-face classes, when teaching
online, the use of particular teaching styles or series of styles must be varied to address
students’ different learning styles. Successful learning and teaching depends on all
participants who have the attitude needed to succeed in the online environment. Juggling
students’ identified learning styles, the constrains of online teaching, and the technical
skills teachers possessed, teachers must plan what is best for the students. It is not an easy
task, particularly with the challenge of the students’ young age. A respondent pointed out
that it was hard to invite students for a virtual class discussion. In a face-to-face class,
students can see each other, and it seems more motivating for students to see other
students raising their hands to offer their own opinions or building on each other’s ideas.
Less students’ engagement was reported in the online class.
As teachers have their students work and submit their assignments online,
teachers are held responsible for giving prompt feedback to the submitted work.
Respondents who are teachers of young children expressed that not only they were
expected by the school to give feedback, but parents also looked forward to immediate
teachers’ feedback. This condition creates pressure on teachers. Given the condition that
an assignment for young children normally takes a maximum of 30 minutes to complete,
teachers have to provide, on average, 4-6 assignments for a day. While in a face-to-face
class setting formative assessments and feedback can be done more quickly, distance
learning makes teachers take a longer time to give feedback. Teachers check students’
uploaded work one by one, write the feedback, identify misconceptions, and reteach
individual students as needed. More individualized feedback was given compared to
group feedback. On one side, it is ideal for students. On the other side, it is timeconsuming for teachers.
Another aspect of assessment, the summative assessment, has also become a big
concern for teachers. With the enforcement of Indonesian government policy on
restriction of social gathering, gathering students for a summative assessment is not an
option. Consequently, teachers have to rack their brains to come up with an alternative for
authentic assessment.
Just like their students, after weeks of home learning, teachers were bored and
longed for interaction with their fellow teachers. For some teachers, weekly online
meetings with other teachers became something they look forward to. Some others
pointed out that more time spent on communication and coordination with students,
parents, other teachers, and school principals.
Teachers also spoke of the significant increase in expenses for internet quota.
Besides, time spent to communicate with parents and to provide technical support to
parents were two other immaterial expenses teachers considered as an extra cost.
With Work from Home (WFH), teachers reported longer, even unlimited working
hours. Most of their time was spent on content-creating and giving feedback to students.
Teachers’ low skills in technology may result in a longer time needed to create content for
online learning. Another reason is the school’s choice of online learning platform may
have some limitations, making content creating more challenging. Subjects and language
of instruction may pose another challenge. Not many ready-to-use online materials are
available in Indonesian language, so that teachers have no choice but to create on their
own.
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CONCLUSION
Covid-19 pandemic has brought a drastic change in how learning and teaching are
conducted in the world of education, including in Indonesia. The problem is that distance
learning has not been part of most educational institutions in Indonesia. Relying heavily
on face-to-face learning, educational institutions in Indonesia are greatly impacted by the
sudden shift to online home learning. Shifting to online home learning is even harder in
primary schools because young students generally need more assistance in their learning.
The condition creates tension between schools and homes. At the school’s side, teachers
are struggling with the drastic change causing an interruption in learning and teaching. At
home, not all parents are not ready with what is required to facilitate home learning.
The objective of this study was to explore the impact of Covid-19 to primary
schools in Tangerang, Indonesia. Respondents (n=15) from a national school and an
international school were chosen through purposive sampling. The respondents
represented parents and teachers from the two schools. Based on an in-depth semistructured interview, some themes expressing their concerns were identified.
Both parents and teachers acknowledged that adequate facilities are the basic prerequirement to run the home learning. Not only the device for accessing or creating online
materials, but stable and fast internet access was also an issue in many places. The
prolonged internet access results in additional expenses that must be born both by parents
and teachers. For parents, the other perceived cost of home learning includes the time
spent to assist their children with home learning. A significant increment in the children’s
screen time has been another notable concern. For teachers, in addition to the significant
increase of the internet bill, the perceived cost includes prolonged work hours as online
content creators, teaching, assessing, and communication and coordination with parents,
teaching teams, and principals.
The fact that both students and teachers have not had a culture and skills of
distance learning caused another tension. Teachers, students, and parents need time to
adapt to the new learning system. Teachers’ limited technical skills demanded the
educational institutions to provide intensive training in a short time to maintain the quality
of learning and teaching.
The sudden shift from face-to-face to online learning resulted in adjustments to
written, taught, and assessed curriculum due to the constraints related to the availability of
resources at home and applicability to conduct through online learning. As a result, the
three aspects of assessment, namely assessing, recording, and reporting, may look
different in term four of the academic year 2020. Teachers must find a way to give
feedback and provide an authentic assessment under the current unique circumstance.
Lastly, boredom and social life aspects of students and teachers are another
concern as home learning gets longer than expected.
Physical distancing and social restriction to stop the spread of Covid-19 must be
supported by all components of the society, including education. The drastic and sudden
change has caused disruptions to the life of all school shareholders. All agree, however,
that education is too important to put into a halt. Learning from home through online
distance learning has become the most sensible alternative for formal education at this
time, regardless of the lacking of skills and infrastructure.
Students, parents, and teachers face many challenges from the sudden shift faceto-face class to online home learning. Primary school children who need more assistance
in their learning process have been significantly impacted. Support from schools, related
institutions, and home, can relieve some of the burdens and ensure the sustainability of
home learning until it is the time to back to regular schooling again.
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Information resources
8th of March
COVID-19 Pandemic Impacts on Online Learning
COVID-19 Pandemic Impacts on Online Learning
Shifting from face-to-face to online learning has resulted in significant disruption of
learning activities all across the globe due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Notably, the education
sector has been exposed to long-term consequences with the abrupt closure of schools and
dramatic change to e-learning. Statistics have illustrated approximately 1.2 billion students out of
class and school in over 186 countries closure following the Covid-19 outbreak in the academic
year 2020-2021. In response to the disruption, schools have adopted the virtual learning initiate
aided by technology and communication platforms where learning materials are passed from
instructor to learners remotely. However, online learning is not effective since learning attributes
like; personal interactive learning, Work Integrative Learning (WIL), soft skills, and observation
of both verbal and non-verbal learning cues are diminished. Other impacts subjected to the
educational sector entail; high educational budgets, socioeconomic disadvantaging leading to
inequality, non-substantial technological capabilities, to mention a few. Therefore, Covid-19 has
imposed challenges to the online learning initiative extensively.
Putri, R. S., Purwanto, A., Pramono, R., Asbari, M., Wijayanti, L. M., & Hyun, C. C.
(2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on online home learning: An explorative study
of primary schools in Indonesia. International Journal of Advanced Science and
Technology, 29(5), 4809-4818.
The article is contributory piecework from a cohort of research experts who illustrate
professional oversights on the topic. The main aim of the study was to identify different
unprecedented constraints imposed on online learning as a result of the Covid-19 rampage.
Through the study, exploratory insights and qualitative research approaches have been engaged
to unleash information concerning the consequential constraints of Covid-19 on primary schools
in Indonesia. From a research perspective, target respondents of 15 parents and teachers were
subjected to structured interview questions after which an in-depth examination of the
information was conducted. From the teacher’s findings, several contain like higher
disadvantaging of special education students, diminished communication and learning
interactions, and longer screening time are unleashed as main impacting consequences. From the
parent’s oversights, different aspects like; high internet bills, lack of efficient technological
skillsets, low coverage of curriculum contents, lack of e-resources, amongst other factors
illustrated the need for the improvement of virtual learning resources.
Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan,
A. R. S. (2020). The perceptions of primary school teachers of online learning during the
COVID-19 pandemic period: A case study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural
Studies, 7(2), 90-109.
The study aimed to examine the intrinsic perceptions of primary school teachers in online
learning programs and the shifting to home learning concerning the quality of education. The
authors illustrate intellectual coherence in data analysis, evaluation, and interpretation which
aggregate to reliable information of the study topic. Essentially, data was collected through
intertwined semi-structured interviews and surveys to target respondents of 67 primary school
teachers in Indonesia. From the study results, four prominent themes entailing; support,
motivation of staff, challenges, and instructional strategies are enlisted. Additionally, the study
results supplement educational literature covering online collaborative learning as far as parents;
teachers and other school stakeholders are concerned. Conclusively, the results indicated a
greater privilege on online learning programs due to the established learning interventions and
technological readiness in Indonesia. Additional credits are thus channeled to support and
collaborations of stakeholders, the national humanistic curriculum, teachers, parents, and the
community at large. Unfortunately, the study was limited to Indonesian respondents’ thus
decreasing viability in other geographical locations.
Simamora, R. M. (2020). The Challenges of online learning during the COVID-19
pandemic: An essay analysis of performing arts education students. Studies in Learning and
Teaching, 1(2), 86-103.
The author annotates the dramatic shifting of learning from face-to-face learning to
virtual platforms and the impacts affiliated with the Covid-19 disruption on higher learning. The
primary aim of the study was to analyze different responses and perspectives of learners
regarding the complexities encountered during online learning. Through evaluation of different
students’ essays from 15 samples, different attributive challenges associated with e-learning.
form the instructions perspectives, directives are channeled to learners synchronous
communication avenues like; zoom, Google meets, emails, WebEx, streaming video contents,
posting lecture notes, video conferences, to mention a few. Through a qualitative approach, the
study conclusively presents findings that contribute to relevant ant analysis of the challenges
herein. The displayed challenges from the study findings include; social and economic
conditions, online learning anxieties and uncertainties, and negative perceptions towards online
learning. However, the study focuses on study essays that might lack quantitative information on
teachers’ perspectives thus attributing the research to limitation. Recommendations on
governmental approaches towards planning, data security risks, and efficiency of learning media
and expectations are outlined giving the study a comprehensive oversight.
Alawamleh, M., Al-Twait, L. M., & Al-Saht, G. R. (2020). The effect of online learning on
communication between instructors and students during the Covid-19 pandemic. Asian
Education and Development Studies.
The study was conducted in pursuit to explore how online learning negatively impacts
communication and interaction between learners and instructors. Additionally, the study sought
to analyze students’ productivity levels with aim of evaluating and suggesting improvement
interventions for effective instructor-learner communication and interactions. The authors
engaged qualitative research methods through a semi-structured online survey via random
sampling techniques. The findings illustrated a vast major degree of negative aspects revolving
around the study question. Critically, numerous responses preferably recommended classroom
learning over virtual learning by attributing online learning to several complexities like; lack of
motivation, student feeling of isolation, the poor conceptualization of learning materials,
unreliable communication channels with instructors during online classes. Surprisingly, the study
might be oriented to limitations since it focused on students’ perspectives without paying
attention to other educational contributory stakeholders. Study recommendations engage
suggestive measures towards improving instructor-student communication for better
improvement of online learning.
Conclusion
The impact of Covid-19 on online learning has been diversified to different online
learning platforms and levels as supported by the outlined research materials. From primary
school level to higher learning, different insights on both intrinsic and extrinsic challenges on
online learning about Covid-19 are outlined. The research is thus oriented to comprehensive
oversights from convergent study findings, evaluation of study results, and interpretation of
information and suggestions of improvement measures towards better online learning. Therefore,
the study topic is supplemented with coherent and relevant information from reliable study
sources.

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