San Jose State University Google is the End of Physical Library Persuasive Speech

My topic is:Google is the end of the physical library. Should keep physical library because both online and physical have advantages.

CHAPTER
11
THIS CHAPTER WILL HELP
YOU
• Outline your speech
content in a linear form
• Create a heading that
summarizes what you
plan to accomplish in
your speech
• Use standard outlin-
ing features including
coordination, subor-
dination, indentation,
alternation, and full
sentences
• Prepare note cards or a
speaking outline
• Know how to record
your ideas using an
alternative pattern
LIVE
Outlining Your Speech
MindTap™ ALTHOUGH YOU may wonder, “Why should I write an outline. I’m preparing a
speech, not writing an essay,” your instructor has good reasons for requiring you
Review the
chapter
to write out your ideas and their relationship to one another. As one student put
it in a semester after she’d taken the class:
Learning
Objectives
and Start
with a quick
warm-up
activity.
The organizational skills I learned in communication class have been
valuable tools in several areas. Not only did learning how to outline allow
me to develop clear, focused speeches, but it also helps in organizing and
focusing papers and presentations in all my classes.
Although this chapter presents tips for creating full-sentence content out-
lines and speaking notes, experienced speakers know there’s no single way
to outline a speech correctly, and there’s no set length for an outline. Many
factors go into shaping your final product, including the type of speech, the
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content t any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Outlining Your Speech
circumstances, and the time limitations. The more speeches you give, the more
you’ll work out your own method for ordering your ideas, given your individual learn-
ing preferences. This chapter explains some foundational outlining principles, fol-
lowed by a description of how to prepare speaking notes. It concludes with ideas
for alternative, more visual methods of recording your ideas that take into account
diversity in individual thinking styles.
Creating a Content Outline
A content outline accomplishes two major purposes: (1) it shows the speech’s structural
elements the introduction, body, and conclusion, and (2) it shows the speech’s logical
elements the major ideas, the supporting materials, and their relationship to one
another. In contrast to a script where you write out every word you say, it’s more like a
skeleton or a blueprint of your ideas that provides the framework for the points you will
develop as you talk. Using full sentences instead of fragments ensures that all your
ideas
are visible and helps you learn the content. Common elements of outline preparation
include a heading and standard formatting features.
Begin with a Heading
The heading provides a brief overview of your entire speech. Include the title, general
purpose, specific purpose, finalized central idea or thesis statement, preview, and the organiza-
tional pattern that you’ve developed using principles found in Chapters 5 and 9. Here is
Chelsea’s heading for her speech on political campaigns:¹
Topic:
Political campaigns
To inform
General Purpose:
Specific Purpose:
To inform my audience about four major ele-
ments in a political campaign and give examples
for each.
Central Idea/Thesis:
Preview:
Political campaigns typically incorporate four ma-
jor elements designed to win a political office.
The four main parts of a campaign involve money,
endorsements, debates, and physical campaigning.
Topical
Organizational Pattern:
Use Standard Formatting
Four features alternation and indentation combined with coordination and subordination-
make visible your speech’s structural and logical interrelationships.
Alternation and Indentation
alternation varying num-
bers and letters in a con-
sistent pattern for different
levels of points
Alternation means you vary numbers and letters, using a consistent pattern. Use Roman
numeral (I, II, III,…) for your main points, a capital letter (A, B, C,…) for first-level sup-
porting points, Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3,…) for second-level support, lowercase letters
(a, b, c,…) for third-level supporting points, and so on. Also use indentation to space vari-
ous levels of supporting points toward the right and additionally show interrelationships
among materials. That is, begin your I- and II-level points at the left margin, but indent
indentation formatting by
spacing various levels of
points toward the right
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic fights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the over Medex@book3000ghe right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
138
CHAPTER 11
MindTap™
Read, highlight, and take
notes online.
content outline formal
record of your major ideas
and their relationship to one
another in your speech
structural elements a
speech’s introduction, body,
and conclusion
logical elements a speech’s
major ideas with support-
ing materials and their
relationship
script the written text con-
taining every word of the
speechCreating a Content Outline
A. Causes
Credit Ⓒ Tim Timmerman
139
An outline is like a skeleton
that provides a framework for
you to flesh out your ideas.
your A and B headings to the right. Then space your third-level supporting points even
further right, and so on. This partial outline shows alternation and indentation:
1. US ideologies of beauty are affecting the world.²
A. Many Asian women seek out a surgery called blepharoplasty.
1. Almost half of all eastern Asians are born with no eyelid crease.
a. Many Asian women desire a crease.
1. They think it is more attractive.
2. A crease makes it easier to apply eye makeup.
b. However, 25-year-old Tina Quak states, “I think it’s a Western idea” (Yee,
2008).
2. A one-hour surgery can create a crease.
B. Skin bleaching products are also common.
II. One major cause is standardization of advertising across media….
(Note: Some instructors prefer that you use Roman numerals to label your introduc-
tion, body, and conclusion and then adjust the labeling of points accordingly.)
Coordination and Subordination
coordination arranging
points into levels, giving the
points on a specific level the
same basic value or weight
Coordination means that you give each major point the same basic value or weight, you
weigh second-level and third-level points similarly, and so on. The word subordination
has two Latin roots: sub (under) and ordinare (to place in order). All first-level points
go under the major points they support; all second-level points go under the first-level
points they support, and so on. The following outline shows two major points: prob-
lem and solution. Subordinated underneath them are the first-level points, causes and
effects, which are coordinated approximately equally. (For purposes of illustration, this
outline shows third-level points under the first cause only.)
subordination placement
of supporting points under
major points
I. Problem
I. Individuals who are mentally ill don’t always get the
care they need.³
A. There are several causes for this.
1. First Cause
1. Psychiatric institutions have closed.
2. Other treatments lack funding.
2. Second Cause
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
140
CHAPTER 11
Outlining Your Speech
B. Effects
B. Many people with mental illness end up on the
streets.
1. First Effect
1. They cause on-the-street disturbances.
2. Second Effect
2. They often land in costlier jails.
a. Support
a. This costs $300-400 per day.
b. Support
b. Case workers would be cheaper.
II. Solutions are both national and personal.
A. First Solution
A. Increasing community support for individuals
with mental illness would solve some problems.
B. Personally, we can become aware and support
mental health funding with votes.
B. Second Solution
In summary, during your speech preparation, create an outline that begins with a
heading and uses a standard format that includes coordinated points with subordinated
supporting materials, arranged by alternating letters and numbers and by indenting
material in a way that shows the relationship of ideas to one another.
Leif’s complete content outline, shown below with commentary, pulls all these ele-
ments together and provides a model and an explanation of his strategies. As you study
his outline, notice that it does not read like a speech script. Instead of putting in each
word he’ll say, he writes out a sentence that summarizes the contents of each point. He
also cites the author and date of specific supporting information in the outline itself; at
the end, he lists his references in the format required by his instructor.
Student Speech Outline with Commentary
NO-WHEELED CAR OR DRY BOAT?4
By Leif Nordstrom
Topic:
Hovercraft
To inform
General Purpose:
Specific Purpose:
As a result of my speech, my audience will understand
how a hovercraft works, tell some advantages and draw-
backs, and know why these vehicles are not street legal.
By writing out the
heading, Leif makes
sure his speech focus
is clear and that his
outline will accomplish
his stated purposes.
Central Idea/Thesis:
Although hovercraft are environmentally friendly all-terrain
vehicles with many uses, their drawbacks keep them from
being street legal.
Preview:
I will discuss how a hovercraft works, describe some
positive aspects, and explain why they are not street legal.
Topical
Organizational Pattern:
Introduction
Identify your speech
introduction, body, and
conclusion. This intro-
duction gains attention,
1. According to my survey, 72% of you say you’ve never seen a hovercraft.
relates to the audience,
II. You may think of this [display image of the Jetsons’ spacecraft] when you hear “hovercraft”
and you think they fly in the air.
establishes credibility,
and previews major
points.
A. Here’s a clip of a real hovercraft [10-second clip].
B. They’re classified as watercraft, although they’re all-terrain vehicles.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, for duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic fights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the over Mail.@book3000.co the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
II. SolutionCreating a Content Outline
III. My senior year of high school, I personally built a hovercraft [two photos] because I wanted
to experiment with the engineering.
IV. I will discuss how these vehicles work, some positive aspects about them, and what keeps
them from being street legal.
Body
Point IV is his preview,
the transition between
1. Hovercrafts are a physicist’s dream.
A. [I will draw a diagram and explain the base, skirt, ground, housing for the propeller, the
propeller itself and the duct.]
the speech introduc-
tion and body. It tells
1. A common misconception is that a propeller on the ground creates lift.
the audience to listen
for topically organized
information.
2. Instead, a single propeller on the top pushes air into a duct that enters the base
area, builds up air pressure, and creates a cushion of air.
3. This air cushion overcomes the craft’s weight.
B. Physicists love hovercraft because there’s minimal friction on the ground.
II. Hovercrafts have many positive features.
A. They are unique all-terrain vehicles [display photo].
1. They are mostly used on water.
2. They can also go on sand, ice, grass, dirt, or relatively flat pavement.
B. According to discoverhover.org. (2004), most hovercraft are used as rescue vehicles,
especially over thin ice and hazardous terrain.
Leif labels the body
of his speech, and he
uses the principle of
coordination. Points
I, II, and III are first-
level points that are
made up of second-,
third-, and fourth-level
supporting materials.
Second- and third-level
supporting points are
subordinated by inden-
tation and alternating
numbers and letters.
1. They exert minimal pressure on the surface, which keeps the rescue crew out of the
water (Fitzgerald, 2004).
2. The ice in this photo [display ice rescue photo] is so thin that the weight of another
vehicle would crack it.
C. Hovercraft have environmental benefits.
1. Their small engines use less fuel; many of you said you value fuel-efficiency.
2. They exert only 0.33 pound per square inch of pressure, which makes them easy on
the environment.
a. This is 1/30 of a human’s footprint pressure (Fitzgerald, 2004).
b. Just standing on a beach, the average person exerts 3 pounds per square inch
(Ernst, n.d.).
c.
During walking, the average jumps to 25 pounds per square inch (Ernst, n.d.).
d. Hovercraft could drive over you and not hurt you.
D. Hovercraft are very safe.
1. I know from experience that, in a collision, they generally bounce off obstacles and
inflict no damage to the ground (Borough, 2012).
All points are phrased
as declarative sen-
tences, one sentence
per point.
2. Finally, Borough (2012) says there is not a single recorded injury in the United
States in over 40 years.
He cites the author
Transition: Now that you know a little bit about hovercraft and their benefits, let’s discuss
three reasons why they are not street legal.
or source and date
beside the material it
supports.
III. Three factors keep hovercraft from being street legal.
A. They create noise pollution.
1. During one experience, I couldn’t hear my own voice over the engine.
2. The noise comes from turbulence off the propeller blades (think: helicopter noise),
but newer technology is helping somewhat (Hover-Gen, 2010).
B. They are extremely hard to control.
Subpoints A through D
are first-level points, 1
and 2 are second-level
supporting points, and
a and b are third-level
supporting points.
1. You cannot turn them.
a. On the show Top Gear the quote was, “If you can see it, you’re too late to turn”
(BBC, Australia, n.d.).
b. Because it has no grip, you must deal with airflow by power sliding every corner
and swinging the back around.
This is the separa-
tion point leading to
his final point, so Leif
writes out a transition.
2. Another problem is stopping; most have no braking system.
a. You have to turn the vehicle around against its own inertia.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
141
142
CHAPTER 11
By setting apart the
conclusion, he makes
sure that he’s crafted
a memorable ending
that summarizes the
speech and is both
purposeful and brief.
Leif formats his refer-
ences in the American
Psychological Asso-
ciation (APA) style.
Ask your instructor
which format he or
she prefers, but always
list the references you
consulted during your
speech preparation.
Instead of writing his notes
on index cards, Leif could
take advantage of the “click
to add notes” feature on
PowerPoint. He sees the
notes; the audience does not.
Positive features
unique ATVs
mostly water
Also sand ice grass dirt
flat pavement
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, for duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic fights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the over MailVexbook:3000.com the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Outlining Your Speech
b. Another way is to shut down the engine and grind the bottom, which I do but
don’t recommend.
c. Companies like neoteric have figured out a braking system, but brakes are not
common (Neoteric, 2012).
3. Most importantly, they are not street legal because they can’t climb hills-which
goes back to physics.
a. You have an incline [draw on whiteboard].
i. The lack of friction increases the amount of force needed to go up an incline,
force they don’t have.
ii.
In contrast, the cars we drive have grips on the tires plus momentum to
keep them on the road.
b. Finally, roads are raised slightly in the center [illustrate with hand] to let the
water run off to the side.
i. A hovercraft going down a paved road would have to angle toward the center
all the way.
ii. That would be hard to do.
Conclusion
I. In conclusion…
II. Hovercraft are low-friction machines with several advantages, but noise pollution, steering
and brake problems, and hills keep them from being street legal.
III. The next time you hear the term all-terrain vehicle, you can talk about the “real” ATV.
IV. It’s not from the Jetsons, but it is, in fact, a real-live hovercraft.
Sources:
BBC Australia. (2010). Hovercraft van, part 4. Top Gear, Season 20, Episode 2. Retrieved from http://www
.topgear.com/au/videos/2002-7
Borough, P. (2010). 10 common questions about hovercraft. Retrieved from http://www.peterboroughhovercraft
.com/ARTICLE10questions.htm
My Hovercraft
Source: Leif NordstromCreating Speaking Notes
Ernst, M. (2010). Hovercraft: Material to accompany activity. Graduate Fellows Program, University
of North Carolina at Wilmington. Retrieved from http://uncw.edu/smec/gk_fellows/Documents/
HovercraftReference.pdf
Fitzgerald, C. (2004). About hovercraft: Hovercraft faq. Retrieved from http://www.discoverhover.org/
abouthovercraft/faq.htm
Hamilton, B. (2012, February 21). Personal interview.
Hover-Gen. (2010). Hovercraft and the environment. Retrieved from http://www.hover-gen.com/hovercraft-
and-the-environment/
hovpod. (Producer). (2006). Hovercraft [Web video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=zp9q_2ulk-M
Janovich, A. (2011, June 8). WV senior crafts his future plans. Yakima Herald-Republic. Retrieved from http:
//www.yakima-herald.com/stories/2011/06/08/wv-senior-crafts-his-future-plans/print
Kemp, P. (Ed.). (2006). Hovercraft. In Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Retrieved from http://www
.encyclopedia.com
Neoteric. (2012). The history of Neoteric, Hovercraft, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.neoterichovercraft
.com/about_neoteric/company_history_2010-2019.htm
Creating Speaking Notes
Your content outline provides a permanent written record that you can file away after
you speak. It’s also useful during rehearsal to run through and get your speech firmly in
mind. However, content outlines differ from speaking notes-what you actually use
when you deliver the speech. Create these notes by using key words, including just
enough phrases or words to jog your memory as you speak. Use full sentences only
for transition statements, direct quotations, and complicated statistics. This section
describes two major formats for speaking notes: notes and speaking outlines.
Speaking Notes
Earlier editions of this text described written notes on index cards. Small note cards are
not outdated; however, today’s speakers also write notes on their cell phones or on small
tablet computers. Some use presentation software such as Prezi or PowerPoint as their
notes. (PowerPoint has space under each slide for your notes.) Here are some general
tips for speaking notes:
• Delete nonessential words-use only key, or significant, words and short phrases.

Highlight important concepts or words you want to emphasize during delivery.
• Include source information so that you can cite those sources as you speak.

Add delivery advice such as pause or slow down.

Practice in front of a mirror using your notes. Revise them if they are not as helpful
as you would like.
Tips specifically for note cards include:
• Write legibly.
• Number your cards so you can quickly put them in place if they get out of order.

Write on only one side because turning cards over can be distracting.
• Use no more than five or six lines per card, and space your lines so that you can easily
keep your place.
• For longer speeches, use more cards instead of crowding additional information onto
a few cards.

During your speech, use your cards unobtrusively. Place them on the lectern if one is
available, and never wave them.
• Don’t read from your cards unless you are reading a direct quotation or giving com-
plicated statistics; then hold up a card and look at it frequently to show your audience
that you are being as accurate as possible.5
MindTap™
Figure 11.1 shows two note cards for Leif’s speech on hovercraft.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
143
speaking notes the notes
you use to deliver your
speech
key words important words
and phrases that will jog the
speaker’s memory
144
CHAPTER 11
Figure 11.1
Speaking Note Cards Your
note cards are a highly
individualized set of key
term cards that will jog your
memory.
Outlining Your Speech
In conclusion …
Low friction -> advs . . .
Disads not street legal
“real” ATV
72%
Jetsons
Intro
72%
Jetsons
[Show Clip] — ATV
Built one
How… Positive… No street
Body–Point 1: How
Physicist’s dream
[draw diagram]
Misconception: propeller
Builds air cushion
last
Jetsons
[Show Clip]
ATV
Built one
How… Positive… No street
Speaking Outlines
Another strategy is to write key terms from your out-
line on a standard sheet of paper. Figure 11.2 shows
the first page of a speaking outline. Many of the tips
for creating note cards apply to this format, but there
are some minor differences:
• Use plenty of space to distinguish between the vari-
ous sections of your speech.
• Use highlighter pens to distinguish the sections
easily. For example, you might underline signposts
and transition statements in orange and use yellow
to emphasize the introduction, the body, and the
conclusion.
• Use different font sizes and formatting features to
break up visual monotony and to direct your eyes
to specific places as you go along. For example, you
might use indentation, color, or alternated lower-
case and capitalized words.
• If you have several sheets of notes, spread them
across the lectern in such a way that you can still see
Minimal ground friction

Figure 11.2
the side edges of the lower pages. Then
move from one page to another, slip the top
unobtrusively and tuck it at the bottom of t
If no lectern is available, you can place you
a dark-colored notebook or folder that you
one hand while gesturing with the other. (
notebook so your audience won’t see your pages.)
Speaking Outline On standard-sized paper, write key words to
remind you of your ideas plus “advice” words to remind you of
your delivery.
Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the over Medex@book3000.he right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
S-L-O-W
S-L-O-W

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