Seattle University Components of Effective Delivery Essay

Chapters 17, 18, & 19: Effective Delivery SkillsChapters 17,18,19: Text – Briefly summarize (1/2 to full PAGE) key components of effective delivery skills and why they are important — qualities, vocal, body (pgs. 243-268).

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Effective delivery can make or break a speech. Without the key components of effective delivery skills, a speech is nothing. Effective delivery is the controlled use of voice and body to express the qualities of naturalness, enthusiasm, confidence and directness. According to our textbook, giving a speech is much like acting, where you use certain gestures or facial expressions to convey what you are saying. To elaborate on the key components of effective delivery, you might say that enthusiasm is contagious, and by using it, you can draw in your listeners. When speaking, you ought to project a sense of confidence and think about the idea you are trying to convey. You also ought to be direct and truly communicate with your audience, by showing that you care about them and how they are reacting to your message.

When selecting a method of delivery, you can choose from four. You can speak from a manuscript, word for word (using a teleprompter or book), you can speak from memory (which not many people do anymore because it can be disastrous if you experience a mental lapse), you can speak impromptu, which is completely spontaneous, or you can speak extemporaneously, which is a something between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. With all of these methods of deliveries, you must practice the key components in order to keep your listener’s attention.

Your voice in delivery matters as well. A strong speaker’s voice should adjust in volume; it should be somewhat louder than a conversational voice. When speaking you ought to vary your intonation because it powerfully affects the meaning of the associated words, just as in comedy or acting. Pitch conveys your mood, level of enthusiasm, concern for the audience, and overall commitment to the occasion. You also ought to adjust your speaking rate; if you speak too quickly, your audience might think you lack control of your speech. You should use strategic pauses, meaning that they enhance meaning by conveying punctuation or a certain meaning. You should also strive for vocal variety, which leaves a certain impression on your audience. The final tip for effectively giving a solid speech is to articulate carefully.

It is also important to think about your body language when speaking, by using the appropriate hand gestures and maintaining eye contact, and animating your facial expressions. All of these things will are important because they make your audience listen to you and you can create a feeling of immediacy with them. The last thing you ought to do to give a good delivery, is to practice your delivery, by recording the speech, focusing on the message, be prepared to revise your speaking points, practice under the realistic conditions, time your speech, and plan ahead and practice often.

SIXTH EDITION
Expert Public Speaking Advice, Now With Exceptional
Digital Resources
With expert advice unavailable elsewhere, and an easy-to-navigate format, A Speaker’s
Guidebook is the essential resource for becoming a more effective speaker in the classroom,
at work, and in the community.
When accompanied by LaunchPad, this edition’s print and digital tools converge to address
all facets of speech-making in captivating ways—from understanding core fundamentals
to using technology for research and giving speeches online. LaunchPad’s new collection
of speech videos (accompanied by questions) provides memorable examples of both
effective and “needs improvement” techniques, while its adaptive quizzing program,
LearningCurve, creates a personalized learning experience that adjusts to each individual’s
strengths and study needs.
Where Students Learn
Get the most out of your book with LaunchPad, where video, audio, and activities with
immediate feedback are available. Go to the inside back cover to learn how you can get
access and look for these icons throughout the book.
LearningCurve — game-like quizzing that adapts to what you already know and
helps you master the concepts you need to learn.
Video — more than 300 video clips and full-length videos that illustrate speech
techniques, including five new full-length speeches and related speech clips.
e-readings — additional resources and reference materials like visual guides and
documentation help.
“This is the quintessential public speaking text.” 

— Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and Technical College
“Contemporary handbook; great for online or hybrid courses. Includes numerous
checklists and tips boxes, which are a big hit with students. Works well as a
reference book as students prepare their speeches, or refer back to in years to
come . . . includes timely information on online presentations and the changing
face of presentational speaking.”
— Brandi Queensberry, Virginia Tech
“Its design makes it easy to access, reference, and read about the world of
public speaking. “
— Jennifer Hallet, Young Harris College
macmillanhighered.com
Dan O’Hair | Rob Stewart | Hannah Rubenstein
mech_ OHair-ASG6-SE-071714
GETTING STARTED WITH CONFIDENCE
ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING
pages 1–34
INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS,
AND LANGUAGE
PUBLIC SPEAKING BASICS
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND TOPIC
SELECTION
VOCAL AND NONVERBAL DELIVERY
6 Analyzing the Audience
7 Selecting a Topic and Purpose
PRESENTATION AIDS
20 Using Presentation Aids in the
Speech
21 Designing Presentation Aids
22 Using Presentation Software
pages 269–308
pages 119–164
00_OHa_63536_IFC.indd 2
17 Methods of Delivery
18 The Voice in Delivery
19 The Body in Delivery
pages 243–268
pages 77–118
SUPPORTING THE SPEECH
8 Developing Supporting Material
9 Finding Credible Print and Online
Materials
10 Citing Sources in Your Speech
14 Developing the Introduction
15 Developing the Conclusion
16 Using Language to Style the
Speech
pages 213–242
pages 35–76
3 Managing Speech Anxiety
4 Listeners and Speakers
5 Ethical Public Speaking
11 Organizing the Body of the Speech
12 Types of Organizational
Arrangements
13 Outlining the Speech
pages 165–212
1 Becoming a Public Speaker
2 Giving It a Try: Preparing Your First
Speech
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FORMS OF SPEECHES
Quick Access Menu
pages 309–406
Using A Speaker’s Guidebook
pages 407–460
23 The Informative Speech
24 The Persuasive Speech
25 Developing Arguments for the
Persuasive Speech
26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech
27 Special Occasion Speeches
• The index
• A list of feature boxes and
checklists
• A list of sample speeches
• A list of visual guides
SPEAKING BEYOND THE SPEECH
CLASSROOM
28 Preparing Online Presentations
29 Collaborating and Presenting in
Groups
30 Business and Professional
Presentations
31 Speaking in Other College Courses
The menu to the left briefly displays
the book’s content. Each menu box
corresponds to a tabbed divider
in the text. The dividers contain
more detailed lists of contents in
each section and are followed by
“Speaker’s Reference” pages that
offer executive-like summaries of the
subsequent chapters. At the back of
the book, you will find:
Where Students Learn
SAMPLE SPEECHES
pages 461–482
Sample Visually Annotated Informative
Speech
Sample Visually Annotated Persuasive
Speech
Sample Special Occasion Speech
Go to the interior back cover to
learn how you can get access to
LaunchPad and look for these icons
throughout the book.
pages 483–512
01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd a
Video—more than 300 video
clips and full-length speech videos,
including five new full-length
speeches and related speech clips.
E-readings—additional resources
and reference materials, such as
visual guides and documentation
help.
REFERENCE AND RESEARCH
APPENDICES
A Commonly Mispronounced Words
B–C Documentation Styles: Chicago and
APA
D Glossary
Digital Appendices
E Question-and-Answer Sessions
F Preparing for TV and Radio
Communication
G–I Documentation Styles: MLA,
CBE/CSE, IEEE
LearningCurve, an adaptive
quizzing program.
To Find Out More
For more on using the book’s reference aids and digital tools, turn to
“How to Use This Book” (p. v).
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A SPEAKER’S
GUIDEBOOK
Text and Reference
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SIX TH E D I T I O N
A SPEAKER’S
GUIDEBOOK
Text and Reference
Dan O’Hair
University of Kentucky
Rob Stewart
Texas Tech University
Hannah Rubenstein
Bedford/St. Martin’s
Boston
01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd iii

New York
21/10/14 5:00 PM
For Bedford/St. Martin’s
Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Higher Education Humanities: Edwin Hill
Publisher for Communication: Erika Gutierrez
Senior Developmental Editor: Lorraina Morrison
Senior Production Editor: Pamela Lawson
Senior Production Supervisor: Steven Cestaro
Marketing Manager: Thomas Digiano
Editorial Assistant: Joanna Kamouh
Copy Editor: Eric Raetz
Indexer: Mary White
Text Permissions: Linda Winters
Photo Permissions: Nick Ciani
Text Design: Jerilyn Bockorick
Cover Design: Marine Miller
Composition: Cenveo Publisher Services
Printing and Binding: Quad/Graphics
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2010, 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin’s
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the
applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.
Manufactured in the United States of America.
9 8 7 6 5 4
f e d c b a
For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street,
Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000)
ISBN: 978-1-457-66353-6 (Student Edition)
ISBN: 978-1-457-68980-2 (Student Edition with The Essential Guide to Rhetoric)
Acknowledgments
Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on page 529, which
constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights
appear on the same page as the art selections they cover. It is a violation of the law to
reproduce these selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of
the copyright holder.
At the time of publication all Internet URLs published in this text were found
to accurately link to their intended website. If you do find a broken link, please
forward the information to will.stonefield@macmillan.com, so that it can be
corrected for the next printing.
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How to Use This Book and
Digital Resources
A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference has been carefully designed to help
you easily and quickly access the information you need to prepare speeches
and presentations. The text may be used in a public speaking course, in other
college courses, in your working life after college, and in your civic activities
in your community. Digital tools such as adaptive quizzing and sample speech
videos are integrated throughout the book and through the LaunchPad platform.
See the inside back cover to learn more about access.
The Main Menu and Table of Contents
The twelve tab dividers (discussed in more detail on the next page) allow the
book to flip open easily, and the book’s binding lets it lie flat. On the inside front
cover you will find the Main Menu that offers a listing of the thirty-one chapters
in the text, color-coded to the corresponding tab, and a visual link to help you
find each one. For even more information or to find a specific topic, simply turn
to the full table of contents on p. xxix.
GETTING STARTED WITH CONFIDENCE
ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING
Quick Access Menu
Using A Speaker’s Guidebook
pages 407–460
• The index
• A list of feature boxes and
checklists
• A list of sample speeches
• A list of visual guides
SPEAKING BEYOND THE SPEECH
CLASSROOM
pages 213–242
pages 35–76
pages 309–406
pages 1–34
14 Developing the Introduction
15 Developing the Conclusion
16 Using Language to Style the
Speech
23 The Informative Speech
24 The Persuasive Speech
25 Developing Arguments for the
Persuasive Speech
26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech
27 Special Occasion Speeches
28 Preparing Online Presentations
29 Collaborating and Presenting in
Groups
30 Business and Professional
Presentations
31 Speaking in Other College Courses
The menu to the left briefly displays
the book’s content. Each menu box
corresponds to a tabbed divider
in the text. The dividers contain
more detailed lists of contents in
each section and are followed by
“Speaker’s Reference” pages that
offer executive-like summaries of the
subsequent chapters. At the back of
the book, you will find:
Where Students Learn
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND TOPIC
SELECTION
SAMPLE SPEECHES
VOCAL AND NONVERBAL DELIVERY
6 Analyzing the Audience
7 Selecting a Topic and Purpose
pages 483–512
pages 269–308
pages 119–164
A Commonly Mispronounced Words
B–C Documentation Styles: Chicago and
APA
D Glossary
Digital Appendices
E Question-and-Answer Sessions
F Preparing for TV and Radio
Communication
G–I Documentation Styles: MLA,
CBE/CSE, IEEE
Go to the interior back cover to
learn how you can get access to
LaunchPad and look for these icons
throughout the book.
LearningCurve, an adaptive
quizzing program.
Video—more than 300 video
clips and full-length speech videos,
including five new full-length
speeches and related speech clips.
E-readings—additional resources
and reference materials, such as
visual guides and documentation
help.
REFERENCE AND RESEARCH
APPENDICES
PRESENTATION AIDS
20 Using Presentation Aids in the
Speech
21 Designing Presentation Aids
22 Using Presentation Software
Sample Visually Annotated Informative
Speech
Sample Visually Annotated Persuasive
Speech
Sample Special Occasion Speech
pages 461–482
17 Methods of Delivery
18 The Voice in Delivery
19 The Body in Delivery
pages 243–268
pages 77–118
SUPPORTING THE SPEECH
8 Developing Supporting Material
9 Finding Credible Print and Online
Materials
10 Citing Sources in Your Speech
FORMS OF SPEECHES
INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS,
AND LANGUAGE
PUBLIC SPEAKING BASICS
3 Managing Speech Anxiety
4 Listeners and Speakers
5 Ethical Public Speaking
11 Organizing the Body of the Speech
12 Types of Organizational
Arrangements
13 Outlining the Speech
pages 165–212
1 Becoming a Public Speaker
2 Giving It a Try: Preparing Your First
Speech
To Find Out More
For more on using the book’s reference aids and digital tools, turn to
“How to Use This Book” (p. v).
v
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vi How to Use This Book and Digital Resources
The Tabs
A Speaker’s Guidebook is divided into twelve tabbed sections that are arranged
into four color banks—blue, orange, purple, and green. Each section opens with
a tab divider; the front of the tab divider identifies the tab name and the chapters contained in that section. The back indicates chapter titles and detailed
information about major topics covered. To find the specific information you
want, look for the appropriate tab and open the book to it.
FORMS OF SPEECHES
(309–406)
FORMS OF SPEECHES
The back of each
tab divider offers a
table of contents for
the chapters within
that tabbed section.
The Speaker’s
Reference pages for
the chapters within
the section follow
each tab divider.
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
23
The Informative Speech
322
Focus on Sharing Knowledge 322
c CHECKLIST Help Listeners Follow Along 324
Categories of Informative Speeches 325
Decide How to Convey the Information 326
Take Steps to Reduce Confusion 329
c CHECKLIST Strategies for Explaining Complex
Information 330
Arrange Speech Points in a Pattern 331
c CHECKLIST Guidelines for Clearly Communicating Your
Informative Message 333
c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH
Freeganism: More Than a Free Lunch, DJ McCabe 333
Social
Media, Social Identity, and Social Causes, Anna Davis 338
c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH
CHAPTER
24
The Persuasive Speech
344
What Is a Persuasive Speech? 344
c CHECKLIST Conditions for Choosing a Persuasive
Purpose 345
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING Persuasive Speeches Respect
Audience Choices 345
Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos 346
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING Using Emotions Ethically 350
c CHECKLIST Displaying Ethos in the Persuasive Speech 352
Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Needs and Motivations 352
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST Tips for Increasing Speaker
Credibility 357
CHAPTER
25
Developing Arguments for the
Persuasive Speech 358
What Is an Argument? 358
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING Engaging in Arguments in the Public
Arena 360
Types of Claims Used in Persuasive Speeches 361
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE Addressing Culture in the
Persuasive Speech 362
Types of Evidence 363
Types of Warrants 364
c CHECKLIST Testing the Strength of Your Evidence 364
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How to Use This Book and Digital Resources
vii
Speaker’s Reference Sections
You may well find one of the most useful features of A Speaker’s Guidebook
to be its Speaker’s Reference pages that immediately follow each tab divider.
These pages provide executive summaries of the material covered within the
subsequent chapters. A list of key terms in the chapters appears at the end
of the Speaker’s Reference pages, just before the opening of the first chapter
within that tabbed section.
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
LearningCurve can help you review.
Go to bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
Speaker’s
Reference
pages offer a
quick review of
the most important information
in subsequent
chapters through
summaries and
key terms.
FORMS OF SPEECHES
CHAPTER
23
The Informative Speech
Focus on Sharing Knowledge and Demonstrating Relevance
• Strive to enlighten (informative intent) rather than to advocate
(persuasive intent). (p. 322)
• Use audience analysis to determine information needs. (p. 321)
• Show the audience why the topic is relevant to them. (p. 323)
• Present new and interesting information. (p. 323)
• Look for ways to increase understanding. (p. 324)
Identify the Subject Matter of Your Informative Speech
To refer to the
full in-text coverage of a topic,
simply flip to the
page indicated in
parentheses.
• Is it a speech about objects or phenomena—e.g., anything that isn’t
human? (p. 325)
• Is it a speech about people—e.g., individuals or groups who have made
a difference? (p. 325)
• Is it a speech about an event—e.g., a noteworthy occurrence? (p. 325)
• Is it a speech about a process—e.g., an explanation of how something
works, as in a series of steps leading to a product or end result? (p. 326)
• Is it a speech about an issue—e.g., a social problem or matter in
dispute? (p. 326)
• Is it a speech about a concept—e.g., an idea, theory, or belief? (p. 326)
Decide How to Convey the Information
• Use definition to clarify. (p. 327)
• Provide descriptions to paint a picture. (p. 328)
• Provide a demonstration. (p. 328)
• Offer an in-depth explanation. (p. 328)
Clarify Complex Information
• Use analogies that link concepts to something familiar. (p. 329)
• Demonstrate underlying causes. (p. 330)
• Use visual aids, including models and drawings. (p. 331)
Appeal to Different Learning Styles
• Consider listeners’ learning styles as part of your audience analysis. (p. 331)
• Offer information in a variety of modes—visually, with sound, with text,
and with demonstrations. (p. 331)
313
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viii How to Use This Book and Digital Resources
LaunchPad for A Speaker’s Guidebook:
bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide
LaunchPad is a new, easy-to-use platform that offers digital tools to support
the speechmaking process, including adaptive quizzes, model full-length speech
videos, student video clips, and video quizzes. LaunchPad can be packaged free
with A Speaker’s Guidebook, or purchased separately—see the inside back cover
for more information or visit launchpadworks.com.
LaunchPad houses a variety of powerful learning tools, including:
LearningCurve
LearningCurve is an online learning tool that adapts to what you already know
and helps you learn the topics that you need to practice. Learning Curve ensures
that you receive as much targeted practice as you need. Icons that appear at
the beginning of each chapter and in the Speaker’s Reference sections prompt
you to visit LaunchPad and take adaptive review quizzes, testing your knowledge
of the concepts from the text.
Icons for LearningCurve appear in the Speaker’s Reference sections and
at the beginning of each chapter to direct students to adaptive quizzes for each
part in LaunchPad.
Video
Anna Davis delivers the
informative speech “Social
Media, Social Identity, and
Social Causes.”
LaunchPad provides access to more than three
hundred short video clips illustrating speech techniques described in the book. Five new full-length
sample speeches appear in this edition. A list of
video clips that map to important speechmaking
topics appears after the index. Speeches that
are printed in the book and available as videos in
LaunchPad are listed on the last book page across
from the inside back cover.
Video icons appear in the Key Terms sections
and near sample speeches to encourage students
to watch the related video in LaunchPad.
e-readings
E-readings offer additional content online, including visual guides and online reference and research appendices.
Icons for e-readings are present in chapters that include additional
reference materials, available in LaunchPad.
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How to Use This Book and Digital Resources
ix
Visual Guides
Visual Guides (eleven total) walk you through the most challenging aspects of the
speechmaking process—from research and organization through creating presentation aids. A complete list of visual guides is available at the end of this book.
FROM IDEA TO SPEECH
How to Transform an Idea into a Polished Speech
The authors of A Speaker’s Guidebook worked on this speech
project with Professor Gary Russell of Quincy University, a
liberal arts university in Illinois. Professor Russell asked
student Teresa Gorrell to work with us on her speech of
introduction. Our goal was to show how a student can take
a first draft of a speech and improve it. We wanted to see
how Teresa could improve the language of her speech, as
well as the delivery.
Teresa Chooses Her Topic
First, Teresa did some brainstorming, to decide what part of her life she’d like to
speak about in her speech of introduction.
Teresa commented, “Based on the sample speeches of introduction that I was
sent by my professor, I have gathered that my speech purpose should be to introduce myself by sharing a personal story concerning some life-shaping, characterforming aspect.”
With this understanding, Teresa did some thinking and narrowed her options
to two ideas for a direction to take.
Option 1:
Option 2:
I would relate my background as a homeschooled student
in grades K-8, my transition into high school, and then
into college, with a focus on how my experiences shaped me
socially and personally.
I would tell the story of my first step into the world of
athletics as a sophomore in high school when I joined
the track team, and explain how, through hard work,
I became an all-conference award runner and school record
holder by my senior year and am now competing as a NCAA
Division II athlete. I would focus on what running means
to me and how it has defined me as a person.
Teresa Drafts Her Speech
Teresa’s first draft speech was compelling, but the authors thought that she could
add more colorful language and details to the introduction. The authors advised
Teresa to “set the scene,” so that the audience could imagine her daily routine.
30
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x How to Use This Book and Digital Resources
Checklists, Boxed Features, and Full-Text Speeches
Useful checklists, appearing in each chapter and providing students with easy-toreference tips and advice on research and speech techniques, are a pedagogical
hallmark of A Speaker’s Guidebook. Throughout A Speaker’s Guidebook you will
also find three types of special boxed features. A Cultural Perspective explores
the many ways that culture informs public speaking, ESL Speaker’s Notes offer
detailed guidance for non-native speakers, and Ethically Speaking boxes offer
students ways to ensure an ethical stance when speaking. Throughout, you also
will find eleven full-text sample speeches, seven by fellow student speakers that
can serve as models to help you learn the art and craft of creating your own
speeches. For a full list of the checklists, boxes, and sample speeches, refer
to the end of the book.
A Cultural Perspective
ESL Speaker’s Notes
Ethically Speaking
Photos: (passport) Charles Taylor/Shutterstock; (globe) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; (column) Radu
Bercan/Shutterstock
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Preface
A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference is a groundbreaking public speaking
text that offers better solutions to the wide range of challenges that students
face. Adopted at more than 850 schools since the first edition was published in
2001, the book grew out of the realization that public speaking courses are not
ends in themselves. The principles and skills taught in this book are meant to be
of lasting use to students and to help them beyond merely meeting the requirements of the course—with guidance for delivering presentations in their other
college courses, in their working lives after college, and in the vital roles they
may play in their communities. The book functions not only as a brief yet comprehensive classroom text but also as a unique and useful postclassroom reference, one that will prove an invaluable resource in any public speaking situation.
The key goal of A Speaker’s Guidebook has always been to effectively address
the fundamental challenges of public speaking, both inside and outside the
speech classroom. And we recognize that as times have changed—especially due
to advances in technology—the challenges of both formal public speaking and
presentational speaking in the classroom and workplace have evolved as well.
Thus, with the support of hundreds of instructors nationwide, we have developed a book that students use and keep, that reinforces basic skills while providing cutting-edge coverage, and that helps students apply what they’ve learned
to their own speeches.
Enduring Features
The following features have made A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference
extremely successful in its first five editions:
An Invaluable Reference beyond the Speech Classroom
A Speaker’s Guidebook features a unique, user-friendly design, convenient and
accessible reference features throughout, and extensive reference and research
appendices. The information in A Speaker’s Guidebook is designed for quick and
easy retrieval. Twelve tabbed dividers allow the book to flip open easily, and a
comb binding lets it lie flat. A Main Menu on the inside front cover listing all
tabs and chapters, paired with a full table of contents beginning on p. xxvii,
quickly directs students to the sections they need.
Speaker’s Reference pages at the beginning of each tabbed section allow
students to quickly access and review the most important information in each
chapter; convenient cross-references enable readers to flip quickly to a full discussion of the material.
xi
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xii Preface
Every chapter in A Speaker’s Guidebook contains Checklists that offer stepby-step directions, self-assessments, and content review checks. Widely praised
by reviewers for their precision and conciseness, these checklists help students
and professionals both plan their speeches and assess their efforts.
The Sample Speeches appendix and a wealth of Reference appendices
allow students to easily access practical information.
A Comprehensive Classroom Text
A Speaker’s Guidebook addresses every topic included in the standard public
speaking texts—and much more. Although we designed the coverage to be accessible, we didn’t lose sight of the need for comprehensiveness. A Speaker’s
Guidebook covers all the traditional topics, including listening, speaking ethically, managing speech anxiety, analyzing the audience, selecting a topic and
purpose, locating and using supporting materials, organizing and outlining
ideas, using language, creating presentation aids, delivering the speech, and
constructing various speech types. The textbook also includes the most current
coverage of public speaking topics that will help students in their future careers
and work in other courses, including using presentation software, delivering
online presentations, preparing business and professional presentations, and
speaking in other courses.
To give students advice that is grounded in the theory of speech communication throughout the text, we have included references to current communication research and classical rhetorical theory, using this research as the basis for
concrete suggestions in real-world speaking situations. Examples range from
coverage of individual contemporary theorists and their work to down-to-earth
discussions of classical theory.
Because persuasive speaking is a major aspect of most speech courses, A
Speaker’s Guidebook offers three full chapters on persuasion, more than any
other text. Chapter 24 introduces the student to contemporary and classical
approaches to persuasion, Chapter 25 to forming arguments, and Chapter 26
to organizing the persuasion speech.
Finally, A Speaker’s Guidebook recognizes the importance of solid sample
speeches, and it provides eleven in total. Speeches include two speeches of
introduction, three informative speeches, four persuasive speeches, and two
special occasion speeches. Each of the full-text model speeches offers textual
annotations that help students understand the language, organization, and
arguments used in the speech. The seven visually annotated speeches also
include photographs of speakers delivering their presentations and connect to
the videos available in LaunchPad. These visual annotations go beyond the traditional printed page by bringing the elements and analysis of speech delivery
into clear focus.
Global Perspective on Public Speaking
A Speaker’s Guidebook also offers students a wealth of resources to help them
adapt their speeches to the cultural requirements of the speech situation. Along
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xiii
with extensive coverage within chapters, A Cultural Perspective boxes feature
such topics as comparing cultural values, vocal delivery and culture, and variations in nonverbal communication.
Special consideration has also been given to the non-native speaker. ESL
Speaker’s Notes boxes focus on critical areas of concern to speakers whose
first language is not English and offer practical ways to address those concerns.
Sample features include “Avoiding the Pitfalls of Manuscript Delivery” and
“Vocal Variety and the Non-Native Speaker.” Another characteristic that defines
A Speaker’s Guidebook is its strong focus on ethics. Chapter 5, “Ethical Public
Speaking,” is devoted to this topic and includes an in-depth consideration of
the role that values play in the ethical quality of speeches. Ethically Speaking
boxes also appear throughout the text, continually reminding students that
ethical conduct must apply to all aspects of the speechmaking process.
A Superior Resource for a Lifetime of Public Speaking
Along with providing students with an accessible, up-to-date classroom guide,
A Speaker’s Guidebook contains many features that will make it an invaluable
resource in other college courses and after the public speaking course.
More about public speaking on the job. A Speaker’s Guidebook gives students more in-depth preparation than any other text for the kinds of speaking
situations they are likely to encounter on the job. Chapter 30 covers business
and professional speeches, sales presentations, progress reports, and staff
reports.
“Speaking in Other College Courses.” Chapter 31 provides guidance for
creating the kinds of oral presentations students are likely to deliver in other
college courses, from the social sciences and humanities to science and engineering. Separate sections describe sample presentations in technical, scientific
and mathematical, arts and humanities, social science, and education courses,
along with a section on speaking in nursing and allied health courses.
Extensive help with the research process. Useful for any college course,
print and online appendices provide advice on how to cite sources in a variety
of reference styles, from APA to MLA to Chicago and more. Appendices E and
F offer guidance on handling question-and-answer sessions and in preparing
students for speaking in mediated communication situations such as television
and radio. Appendices E–I are available within LaunchPad.
The Story of the New Edition
In the sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook, print and digital tools converge to
help students with every aspect of the speech building process, including a new
online learning platform that seamlessly integrates e-book content, adaptive
quizzes, and video. With students’ needs foremost in mind, revised chapters on
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xiv Preface
fundamentals such as listening, ethical speechmaking, audience analysis, topic
selection and support, and outlining offer newly relevant examples and accessible guidance. The authors have streamlined the text to make chapters easier
for students to read and understand. The new edition represents the authors’
collective efforts to review the literature and incorporate the most reliable and
up-to-date research studies (113 total new studies). This revision includes new
material on researching topics in print and online, using presentation tools,
and gaining familiarity with delivering presentations online—all useful for the
classroom, online education, and the professional arena.
New as well is a visually appealing and highly relevant collection of speech
videos on topics ranging from freeganism to ethical manufacturing. In response
to requests by adopters, this edition also includes a “before” and “after” speech
by a current student—an early “needs improvement” version and a second
more-polished version. The sample student speech videos are accompanied by
quiz questions that test understanding of concepts. These speech video resources
help students focus on how to strengthen their own speeches by analyzing
model speech techniques and “needs improvement” speeches.
A Speaker’s Guidebook is also available in a variety of digital formats, including the new LaunchPad edition. LaunchPad combines an interactive e-book,
full-length speech videos and video clips, reference tools, LearningCurve adaptive quizzes, and e-readings that help support research in one convenient learning program.
A Wealth of New Research
The sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook includes a record 113 new peerreviewed studies, in chapters ranging from listening (12 new studies), ethics
(12), and audience analysis (17) to persuasion (15) and others.
Even Stronger Coverage of Public Speaking Fundamentals
• A revised Chapter 1 reflects the true excitement and real-life relevance that public speaking can bring to students, with inspiring new
reportage on Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, compelling testimony from Warren Buffet on the pivotal role of public speaking in his success, and key surveys of employers on the pressing need for
oral communication skills in the workplace. Here, as students embark on
the speech course, they can easily see how skills gained in the speech class
can improve their performance in their other courses, their working lives,
and in their role as engaged citizens in their communities.
• The latest scholarship on listening. This fully revised chapter reflects
current scholarship on listening-processing strategies and approaches to
the listening event published in the International Journal of Listening and
elsewhere, from the perspective of both listener and speaker. The chapter
stresses the difference between hearing and listening, and offers practical
advice on active listening.
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• Communication ethics, updated with the foundations. This revised
chapter retains its popular basic structure while offering students new tools
with which to engage in ethical decision making. New to this edition is a
brief overview of the three major ethical theories, each reflecting differing
standards by which to distinguish ethical from
nonethical behavior, which allows students to reflect on and actively engage their own values when
considering the role of ethics in the speechmaking
process.
Elijah Lui gives his persuasive
speech “Preventing
Cyberbullying” online. The
full text of the speech is
included in Chapter 26, and
the full-length speech video
and relevant video clips are
available in LaunchPad.
• Persuasive techniques made more accessible
and relevant to today’s students. Persuasion
lies at the heart of public speaking, but learning
about it can be daunting for the first-time student. Clearer and more engaging explanations
and examples appear throughout the chapters,
from using the real-world Campus Kitchen
Project to demonstrate the syllogism to all-new
examples using fair trade, immigration, and
climate change to illustrate the components of
an argument.
Cutting-Edge Coverage of the New Public Speaking Realities
Students live in a digital age in which the realities of preparing and delivering
presentations continue to evolve. A growing number of instructors are teaching
an online public speaking course for the first time, and more and more students (and professionals) are expected to prepare and deliver mediated presentations, creating new challenges across the board. In this edition, we have
updated our groundbreaking coverage of online presentations and using presentation aids.
• New chapter reflects new direction in online and print research.
Chapter 9, “Finding Credible Print and Online Materials,” offers an
approach to searching for supporting materials aligned with the way that
students do their research today—online—and demonstrates where and
how to find reliable and credible resources, both print and digital.
• Revised chapters show students how to create presentations in Prezi,
Apple Keynote, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Chapters 20–22 focus on
presentation aids and software and show students how to create and
deliver effective presentations, while avoiding technical glitches.
• An updated chapter on online presentations. Chapter 28 provides students with the most helpful tips and guidance on how to prepare online
speeches—whether for use in an online class, for a recorded presentation,
or for a virtual meeting. Introduced in the fifth edition, the sixth edition of
A Speaker’s Guidebook provides innovative coverage of the steps involved in
delivering online presentations, fully revised to reflect current practices.
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xvi Preface
A Multifaceted Digital Experience Brings It All Together
Digital resources for A Speaker’s Guidebook are available in LaunchPad,
a dynamic new platform that combines a curated collection of video, homework assignments, e-book content, and the LearningCurve adaptive quizzing
program in a simple design. LaunchPad can be packaged free with A Speaker’s
Guidebook, or it can be purchased separately.
• Relevant videos are available by e-book chapter. After students read
about speech techniques, they can view videos that model these concepts.
• Instructors can create reading, video, or quiz assignments easily.
LaunchPad provides premade assignments that instructors can use as-is or
as a starting point for their own assignments.
• With LaunchPad, instructors can upload and embed their own
content. Instructors can add their own readings, videos, and custom
content to the ready-made content that exists in LaunchPad.
• The Gradebook in LaunchPad enables instructors to track and
analyze student progress. Instructors can also keep an eye on their class’s
progress throughout the semester—reviewing progress for the whole class,
individual students, or individual assignments.
• LearningCurve’s adaptive quizzing provides a personalized learning
experience. In every chapter, call-outs prompt students to tackle the
LearningCurve quizzes to test their knowledge and reinforce learning of the
material. Based on research on how students learn, LearningCurve motivates students to engage with course materials and learn important concepts. LearningCurve for A Speaker’s Guidebook is organized by part, so
students can review a range of topics.
New and Improved Video Program in LaunchPad Helps
Students Apply What They Learn to Their Own Speeches
• New informative and persuasive speech videos accompanied by questions
show how speakers can polish every aspect of their speeches—by demonstrating effective introductions, conclusions, transitions, supporting material, patterns of organization, citation of sources, use of presentation aids,
and techniques of delivery. These polished and professionally shot speech
videos offer topics of real interest to students, such as social media,
freeganism, and ethical manufacturing. Full-text versions of the speeches
are printed in the book, with electronic transcripts and closed captioning
in LaunchPad. Mirroring new realities, one of the new speeches on
preventing cyberbullying is given as an online presentation, showing the
process of setting up the presentation and techniques for keeping a remote
audience engaged.
• A comprehensive video collection containing more than three hundred
clips and thirty three full-length student speeches highlights typical
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issues—in model speeches that show expert speech techniques and “needs
improvement clips”—in order for students to develop their own skills.
Digital and Print Formats
For more information on these formats and packaging information, please visit
the online catalog at bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide/catalog.
LaunchPad for A Speaker’s Guidebook is a dynamic new platform that
dramatically enhances teaching and learning. LaunchPad combines the
full e-book, which includes The Essential Guide to Rhetoric, with carefully chosen videos, quizzes, activities, instructor’s resources, and LearningCurves. To
get access to the videos, quizzes, and multimedia resources, package LaunchPad
for free with the print version of A Speaker’s Guidebook or order LaunchPad on
its own. Learn more at launchpadworks.com.
A Speaker’s Guidebook is available as a print text. To get the most out of the
book, package LaunchPad for free with the text.
A Speaker’s Guidebook with The Essential Guide to Rhetoric, Sixth Edition.
This version of A Speaker’s Guidebook includes a full tabbed section that provides additional coverage of rhetorical theory—from the classical to the
contemporary—and its practical applications. Package this version with
LaunchPad free to get access to the digital resources and tools.
The Bedford e-Book to Go for A Speaker’s Guidebook includes the same
content as the print book, and provides an affordable, tech-savvy PDF e-book
option for students. Instructors can customize the e-book by adding their
own content and deleting or rearranging chapters. Learn more about custom
Bedford e-Books to Go at bedfordstmartins.com/ebooks—where you can also
learn more about other e-book versions of A Speaker’s Guidebook in a variety of
formats, including Kindle, CourseSmart, Barnes & Noble Nook-Study, Know,
CafeScribe, or Chegg.
Resources for Students and Instructors
Online Resources for Students
For more information on Student Resources or to learn about package options,
please visit the online catalog at bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide/catalog.
LaunchPad for A Speaker’s Guidebook. This easy-to-use learning platform includes an interactive e-book, adaptive quizzing, a comprehensive collection of
speech videos, and more. Visit launchpadworks.com for more information.
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xviii Preface
Communication Central website. Accessed through bedfordstmartins
.com/speakersguide, this free and open website hosts a variety of study tools
and resources, including Web links, additional full-text sample speeches, and
the Bedford Speech Outliner.
Print Resources for Students
The Essential Guide to Rhetoric by William M. Keith, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and Christian O. Lundberg, University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill. This guide is a powerful addition to the public speaking class, providing an accessible and balanced overview of key historical and contemporary
rhetorical theories. Written by two leaders in the field, this brief guide uses
concrete, relevant examples and jargon-free language to bring these concepts
to life.
The Essential Guide to Presentation Software, Second Edition, by Allison
Bailey, University of North Georgia, and Rob Patterson, University of Virginia.
This completely revised guide shows students how presentation software can
be used to support, not overtake, their speeches. Sample screens and practical
advice on using PowerPoint, Prezi, and other presentation tools make this an
indispensable resource for students preparing electronic visual aids.
The Essential Guide to Interpersonal Communication and The Essential
Guide to Group Communication, both by Dan O’Hair and Mary Wiemann,
and The Essential Guide to Intercultural Communication by Jennifer WillisRivera. These brief and readable guides offer succinct yet comprehensive coverage of key aspects of interpersonal, group, and intercultural communication,
covering basic concepts and theories backed by current scholarship.
Outlining and Organizing Your Speech by Merry Buchanan, University of
Central Oklahoma. This student workbook provides step-by-step guidance for
preparing informative, persuasive, and professional presentations and gives
students the opportunity to practice the critical skills of conducting audience
analysis, dealing with communication apprehension, selecting a speech topic
and purpose, researching support materials, organizing and outlining, developing introductions and conclusions, enhancing language and delivery, and
preparing and using presentation aids.
Media Career Guide: Preparing for Jobs in the 21st Century, Ninth Edition,
by James Seguin, Robert Morris University, and Sherri Hope Culver, Temple
University. Practical, student-friendly, and revised for recent trends in the job
market—like the role of social media in a job search—this guide includes a
comprehensive directory of media jobs, practical tips, and career guidance for
students considering a major in communication studies and mass media.
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Research and Documentation in the Digital Age, Sixth Edition, by Diana
Hacker, late of Prince George’s Community College, and Barbara Fister, Gustavus Adolphus College. This handy booklet covers everything students need
for college research assignments at the library and on the Internet, including
advice for finding and evaluating Internet sources.
Resources for Instructors
For more information or to order or download the Instructor Resources, please
visit the online catalog at bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide/catalog.
Online Instructor’s Resource Manual by LeAnne Lagasse, Texas Tech University; Jennifer Emerling Bone, State University of New York, Oneonta; Elaine
Wittenberg-Lyles, University of Texas, San Antonio; and Melinda Villagran,
George Mason University. Available in LaunchPad or downloadable online,
this revised comprehensive manual is a valuable resource for new and experienced instructors alike. It offers extensive advice on topics such as helping
students use their public speaking skills to become more engaged citizens; ideas
for preparation and practice to reduce speech anxiety; setting and achieving
student learning goals; managing the classroom; facilitating group discussion;
understanding culture and gender considerations; dealing with ESL students;
evaluating speeches (for both instructors and students); and evaluating Internet resources. In addition, each chapter of the main text is broken down into
chapter challenges, detailed outlines, suggestions for facilitating class discussion from topics covered in feature boxes, additional activities and exercises,
and recommended supplementary resources. The new edition includes more
guidelines for first-time instructors, advice for integrating technology into
the speech class, and expanded suggestions for videos and other classroom
resources.
Computerized Test Bank by LeAnne Lagasse, Texas Tech University; Jennifer
Emerling Bone, State University of New York, Oneonta; and Merry Buchanan,
University of Central Oklahoma. A Speaker’s Guidebook offers a complete testing program, available in LaunchPad or downloadable online, for Windows
and Macintosh environments. Each chapter includes multiple-choice, truefalse, and fill-in-the-blank exercises, as well as essay questions. Sample final
examinations are also included in the testing program.
PowerPoint Slides for A Speaker’s Guidebook. Available in LaunchPad or as a
download, each chapter’s slides include the most important points from the
text, as well as key figures.
Custom solutions. Qualified adopters can customize A Speaker’s Guidebook
and make it their own by adding their own content or mixing it with ours. To
learn more, visit bedfordstmartins.com/custom.
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xx Preface
Professional Development Series
NEW! ESL Students in the Public Speaking Classroom: A Guide for
Instructors, Second Edition, by Robbin Crabtree, Fairfield University, and
David Allen Sapp, Fairfield University, with Robert Weissberg, New Mexico
State University. This guidebook provides support for new and experienced
instructors of public speaking courses whose classrooms include ESL and other
linguistically diverse students. Based on landmark research and years of their
own teaching experience, the authors provide insights about the variety of
non-native English-speaking students (including speakers of global English
varieties), practical techniques that can be used to help these students succeed
in their assignments, and ideas for leveraging this cultural asset for the
education of all students in the public speaking classroom.
Teaching Public Speaking: A Guide for New Instructors by Paula Youra,
Lynchburg College. This guidebook provides adaptable advice on cultivating
credibility and comfort in the classroom, and on succeeding during the first
day, week, and semester of the course.
Coordinating the Communication Course: A Guidebook by Deanna L. Fassett,
San José State University, and John T. Warren, Southern Illinois University,
Carbondale. This resource offers practical advice on every topic central to the
coordinator/director role.
Acknowledgments
We are especially thankful for the contributions of several individuals who
helped us develop this edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook. Thanks to Kevin Ayotte
of California State University, Fresno, and Brian Kanouse of Keene State College
for their contributions to the sample speeches. Thanks to Gary Russell, Quincy
University, for his help with the sample speech of introduction. Special thanks
to Teresa Gorrell for working with us to draft and present her speech of introduction. We would like to thank Teri Varner of St. Edward’s University and her
students for their contributions to the sample speeches. We are also grateful to
Kelley Cowden from the University of Kentucky for her helpful suggestions. We
would like to thank LeAnne Lagasse of Texas Tech University for her excellent
work revising the Instructor’s Resource Manual (originally created by Elaine
Wittenberg-Lyles of the University of Texas at San Antonio and Melinda
Villagran of George Mason University, and revised for the third edition by
Jennifer Emerling Bone of the State University of New York, Oneonta) and Test
Bank (originally created by Tom Howard of the University of Oklahoma and
Merry Buchanan of the University of Central Oklahoma, and updated by
Jennifer Emerling Bone). Thank you also to Bruce Sherwin and Publishers
Solutions for their work on Web quizzes and other resources to accompany A
Speaker’s Guidebook, Sixth Edition.
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We very much appreciate the assistance of the hundreds of reviewers whose
feedback and advice allowed us to make A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference, Sixth Edition, better. Please see the following pages for a list of each of
these reviewers.
The sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook demanded constant attention
and labor from the dedicated team at Bedford/St. Martin’s. Publisher Erika
Guiterrez has now been the guiding spirit for the book for over a decade, and
we are ever grateful for her countless editorial, marketing, and sales contributions to its success. Senior Development Editor Lorraina Morrison devoted innumerable hours on all aspects of development, from editing chapters with
great good cheer and tact, to spearheading a superb series of speech videos, to
laboring over one thousand and one other details, and we are most grateful. We
also thank Associate Editor Alexis Smith, whose contribution to the LearningCurve questions adds a new and vital dimension to the text; and Editorial
Assistant Joanna Kamouh for her always swift and efficient help, hard work,
and good instincts. Pamela Lawson, Production Editor, expertly guided the text
through a complicated production process under the direction of Steven Cestaro
and Elise S. Kaiser. Thanks to Thomas Kane, Senior New Media Editor for helping us to develop LaunchPad. We are grateful to Thomas Digiano, Marketing
Manager, for his sales and marketing efforts.
Virtual Focus Group Participants
Marlene Atkins, The Illinois Institute of Art,
Schaumburg
Steven Cohen, University of Maryland
Diana Cooley, Lone Star College, North Harris
Dustin Crosby, Southern Oregon University
Paul Crowley, Spartanburg Community College
Emilie Falc, Winona State University
Richard Harris, Southeastern University
Bruce Holmes, Stratford University
Monica Maxwell, Georgetown University
Gary Russell, Quincy University
Reviewers and Survey Respondents
Rebecca Aarestad, Waubun High School
Karen Alman, Wenatchee Valley College
Oluwunmi Ariyo, Vance Granville
Community College
Kathy Berggren, Cornell University
Aria Bernstein, Georgia Perimeter College
Steven Bisch, Washington State University
Tri-Cities
Becky Behm, Alexandria Technical and
Community College
Esther Boucher, Worchester Polytechnic
Institute
01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxi
Greg Brecht, University of South Florida St.
Petersburg
Carol Brown, Centralia College
Carolyn Calhoon Dillahunt, Yakima Valley
Community College
Marybeth Callison, University of Georgia
Diane Carter, University of Idaho
Linda Carvalho Cooley, Reedley College
Anthony Cavaluzzi, SUNY Adirondack
Melinda Christianson, Underwood School
Jeanne Christie, Western Connecticut State
University
21/10/14 5:01 PM
xxii Preface
John Castagna, Penn State Abington
Mittie Jane Crouch, Tidewater Community
College
Anna Cross, Portsmouth Public Schools
Rose Crnkovich, Trinity High School
Kevin Cummings, Mercer University
Staci Dinerstein, William Patterson
University
Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and
Technical College
Sarah Engle, Liverpool High School
Julie Floyd, Central Georgia Technical
College
Amy Gall, St. Louis Christian College
Ellen Gabrielleschi, Clarke University
Jerry Gibbens, Williams Baptist College
Beate Gilliar, Manchester University
Cheryl Golemo, Harper College
Alan Gousie, Community College of Rhode
Island
Orsini Gonzalez, City College
Robin Grantham, Georgia Military College
Jennifer Hallett, Young Harris College
Debra Harper-LeBlanc, Lone Star College,
Greenspoint Center
Carla Harrell, Old Dominion University
Richard Harrison, Kilgore College
Marcia Hines-Colvin, Saint Mary’s
University of Minnesota
Gregory Hudson, Cincinnati State
Jessica Hurless, Casper College
Susan Isaacs, Union College
Kathleen Jacquette, Farmingdale State
College
Marlena Karami, Roxbury Community
College
Veronica Koehn, Oregon Institute of
Technology
Beth Konrad, Loyola University Chicago
Kelly Lancaster, School of Art and Design
Ross Larson, Carthage College
Darren Linvill, Clemson University
Shane Martin, Fitchburg State University
Amanda Martinez, Davidson College
Chandra Massner, University of Pikeville
Julia McDermott-Swanson, Santa Rosa
Junior College
Jamie McKown, College of the Atlantic
Ellen Mroz, Community College of Rhode
Island
Diorah Nelson, Hillsborough Community
College
Charles Parker, Friends University
Elaine Pascale, Suffolk University
Shelli Pentimall Bookler, Bucks County
Community College
Brandi Quesenberry, Virginia Tech
Gail G. Reid, University of West Georgia
Donald Rhoads, Thaddeus Stevens College
of Technology
R. Joseph Rodriguez, University of Texas
at Austin
Sue Roeglin, Georgetown University
Gerald Savage, Illinois State University
Lynn Scramuzza, University of Scranton
Gretchen Skivington, Great Basin College
Julie Suek, Lower Columbia College
Gregory Thomas, Morgan Community
College
Shauna Vey, New York City College of
Technology CUNY
Fred Whiting, Art Institute of Washington,
DC
Jon A. Williams, Niagara County
Community College
Kathleen Williams, Bergen Community
College
Ty Williams, St. Philip’s College
Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Fifth Edition
Diane Auten, Allan Hancock College; Diane M. Badzinski, Colorado Christian
University; Raymond Bell, Calhoun Community College; Jeffrey D. Brand,
Millikin University; Lacinda Brese, Southeastern Oklahoma State University;
Jennifer L. Chakroff, Lasell College; Jeannette Duarte, Rio Hondo College;
Richard E. Edwards, Baylor University; Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and
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xxiii
Technical College; Nancy M. Fisher, Ohio State University; David S. Fusani, Erie
Community College; Jeffery Gentry, Rogers State University; Kim Gerhardt, San
Diego Mesa College; Steven Grant, Florida State College at Jacksonville; Carla
Harrell, Old Dominion University; Constance G. Hudspeth, Rollins College
and Valencia Community College; Carie Kapellusch, Texas Christian University; Carol Koris, Johnson & Wales University; Steve Madden, Coastal Carolina
University; Brian R. McGee, College of Charleston; Teresa Metzger, California
State University San Marcos; Alexa G. Naramore, University of Cincinnati;
Clayton Coke Newell, University of Saint Francis; Nikki Poppen-Eagan, Pierce
College; Mark Ristroph, Augusta Technical College; Gary E. Russell, Quincy
University; Jeffrey VanCleave, University of Kentucky; Teri Lynn Varner, St.
Edward’s University; John T. Warren, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale;
and Allyson Zadeh, Front Range Community College.
Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Fourth Edition
Stephanie Ahfeldt, Concordia College; Allison Ainsworth, Gainesville State College; Timothy Anderson, Elgin Community College; Dencil K. Backus, California University of Pennsylvania; Robert Betts, Rock Valley College; Thomas
Bovino, Suffolk County Community College; Amanda Brown, University of
Wisconsin, Stout; Christa Brown, Minnesota State University; Edward Clift,
Woodbury University; Michael D. Crum, Coastal Carolina Community College;
Kevin Cummings, Mercer University; Julie Davis, College of Charleston; Gary
Deaton, University of Transylvania; Cynthia Dewar, City College of San Francisco; Thomas F. Downard, Northeastern University; Fred Fitch, Kean University; James J. Floyd, University of Central Missouri; Sonia Margarita Gangotena,
Blinn College; Ron Gephart, Southwest Tennessee Community College; Valerie
Manno Giroux, University of Miami; Keith H. Griffin, University of South
Carolina; Diane Gruber, Arizona State University; Deborah Hefferin, Broward
Community College; Emily Holler, Kennesaw State University; Brendan B. Kelly,
University of West Florida; Carol Koris, Johnson & Wales University, North
Miami; Lynn Kuechle, Minnesota State University, Mankato; Victoria Leonard,
College of the Canyons; Nancy Levin, Palm Beach Community College; Natabhona Mabachi, University of Kansas; Anne McIntosh, Central Piedmont
Community College; Marjorie Keeshan Nadler, Miami University; Phyllis Ngai,
University of Montana, Missoula; Kekeli Nuviadenu, Bethune-Cookman
College; Keith Perry, Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College; Brian Pilling,
Westminster College; Roger D. Priest, Ivy Tech Community College; Paul Raptis,
Gainesville State College; Kenna J. Reeves, Emporia State University; John Reffue, Hillsborough Community College; Rebecca Robideaux, Boise State University; Karin Russell, Keiser University; John Saunders, Columbus State University;
James M. Schnoebelen, Washburn University; Karen Michelle Scott, Savannah
College of Art & Design; Pam Speights, Wharton County Junior College;
Erik Stroner, Iowa Central Community College; Bonnye Stuart, Winthrop
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xxiv Preface
University; Sarah Elizabeth Symonds, Coastal Carolina Community College;
Laura R. Umphrey, Northern Arizona University; Steve Vrooman, Texas Lutheran University; Marta Walz, Elgin Community College; Stephanie Webster,
University of Florida; Kristopher Robert Weeks, Montclair State University;
David E. Williams, Texas Tech University; and Jim Wilson, Shelton State
Community College.
Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Third Edition
Helen Acosta, Bakersfield College; Nedra Adams-Soller, College of Lake County;
Sue Aiello, New York Institute of Technology, Main Campus; Robert Alexander,
Bucks County Community College; Jason Ames, Chabot College; James Anderson, Johnson & Wales University; Robert Arend, San Diego Miramar College;
Mike Armstrong, Tallahassee Community College; Jay Baglia, San Jose State
University; Kaylene Barbe, Oklahoma Baptist University; Cameron Basquiat,
Community College of Southern Nevada; Kimberly Batty-Herbert, Broward
Community College North; Elizabeth Bell, University of South Florida; Ray Bell,
John C. Calhoun State Community College; Christina Benac, Ball State University; Mary Jane Berger, College of Saint Benedict; Kathy Berggren, Cornell
University; Mark Bergmooser, Monroe County Community College; Sandra
Berkowitz, University of Maine; Constance Berman, Berkshire Community College; Bob Betts, Rock Valley College; Pete Bicak, Rockhurst University; Rochelle
Bird, Utah Valley State College; T. Black, Shepherd College; Marian Blue, Skagit
Valley Community College, Oak Harbor; Jennifer Emerling Bone, University of
Colorado, Boulder; Robert Bookwalter, Marshall University; Jennifer Boyenga,
Indian Hills Community College; Chris Braden, Alverno College; Linda Brigance, SUNY College at Fredonia; Joel Brouwer, Montcalm Community College;
Jin Brown, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Nate Brown, Santa Monica College;
Ferald Bryan, Northern Illinois University; Glenn Byrne, Stonehill College; Lisa
Callihan, Florence Darlington Technical College; Diana Cameron, North Iowa
Area Community College; Amy Capwell-Burns, University of Toledo; Harry
Carrell, Missouri Valley College; Karishma Chatterjee, Ohio State University,
Main Campus; Susan Childress, Santa Rosa Junior College; Sally Cissna, Milwaukee School of Engineering; Carolyn Clark, Salt Lake Community College;
Annie Clement, Winona State University; Robert Cohen, Ohio State University,
Mansfield; Jennifer Cohen-Rosenberg, Los Angeles Pierce College; Linda Combs,
Daytona Beach Community College; Melanie Conrad, Midwestern State
University; John Cook, University of Texas at Brownsville; Diana Cooley, North
Harris College; Kimberly Corey, McIntosh College; Ed Coursey, Palm Beach
Community College Glades Center; Ken Cox, Florence Darlington Technical
College; Sandra Coyner, Southern Oregon University; Christine Cranford,
East Carolina University; Rita Crockett, Howard College; Billye Currie, Samford
University; Daniel Dahlquist, University of Wisconsin at Platteville; Phillip
Dalton, Stetson University; William Davidson, University of Wisconsin, Stevens
Point; Dale Davis, University of Texas at San Antonio; Thomas DelVecchio,
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xxv
Iona College; Andrew Denhart, Stetson University; Ron Dluger, North Park
University; Paul Duax, American River College; Betty Dvorsen, City College of
San Francisco; Jarvis Elena, Daytona Beach Community College; Dennis Elkins,
Savannah College of Art and Design; Scott Ellis, San Jacinto College, Central
Campus; Valerie Endress, Rhode Island College; Carolyn Engdahl, Fitchburg
State University; David Engel, Marshalltown Community College; Kathleen M.
Farrell, St. Louis University; Judy Ferrand, Wor-Wic Community College; William Ferreira, Houston Community College Southwest; Nilo Figur, Concordia
University; Sondra Fishinger, Union County College; Peter Fjeld, Berkeley College; Charles Fleischman, Hofstra University; James J. Floyd, Central Missouri
State University; Marjorie Ford, Stanford University; Christine Foster, Ramapo
College of New Jersey; James Friauf, Milwaukee School of Engineering; William
Furnell, Santa Monica College; James Gallagher, New Mexico State University
at Alamogordo; Pat Gehrke, University of South Carolina; John Gillette, Lake
City Community College; Susan Gilpin, Marshall University; Valerie Giroux,
University of Miami; Curt Gilstrap, Drury University; Louis Giuliana, Holy
Family College; Susan Giusto, Francis Marion University; Eric Gnezda, Ohio
Wesleyan University; Robert Gobetz, University of Indianapolis; William
“Bubba” Godsey, John C. Calhoun State Community College; Janna Goodwin,
Regis University; Luke Gordon, Portland State University; Michelle Gorthy, City
College of San Francisco; Frank Gray, Ball State University; Neil Gregersen,
University of Wisconsin at Waukesha; Laura Gregg, Saginaw Chippewa Tribal
College; Jean Groshek, Alverno College; Diane Gruber, Arizona State University,
West; Phil Hamilton, San Bernardino Valley College; Greg Hammond, New
Mexico Junior College; Reeze Hanson, Haskell Indian Nations University; Eric
Harlan, Mississippi University for Women; John Hatch, University of Dubuque;
Linda Heil, Harford Community College; Mark Henderson, Jackson State University; Andrew Herman, State University of New York at Genesee; Dan
Higgins, Heidelberg College; Rick Hogrefe, Crafton Hills College; Angela
Holland, Community College of Southern Nevada; Emily Holler, Kennesaw State
University; Victoria Howitt, Grossmont College; Kevin Howley, DePauw University; Karen Huck, Central Oregon Community College; W. A. Kelly Huff,
Truett-McConnell, Watkinsville; Lynette Jachowicz, Maple Woods Community
College; Dale Jenkins, Virginia Technical College; Ronald C. Jones, Norfolk
State University; Linda Karch, Norwich University; Susan Katz, University of
Bridgeport; Bill Keith, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Tim Kelley, NorthwestShoals Community College; Helen Kingkade, Midlands Technical College, Airport; David Kosloski, Clark College; Jeffrey Kotz, University of Connecticut;
Mary Lahman, Manchester College; Jon Larson, Inver Hills Community College; Betty Jane Lawrence, Bradley University; Peter Lee, Golden West College;
Diana Leonard, University of Arizona; Victoria Leonard, College of the Canyons; Douglas Lepter, Trevecca Nazarene University; Wendy Leslie, Missouri
Valley College; Jason Lind, Skagit Valley College; Linda Linn, Western Wyoming
College; Steven Long, Wayland Baptist University; Bob Loss, Barton County
Community College; Louis Lucca, La Guardia Community College, CUNY;
Thomas Marshall, Robert Morris University; Ben Martin, Santa Monica
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xxvi Preface
College; Michael McFarland, Stetson University; Lee McGavin, University of
Texas, Permian Basin; Libby McGlone, Columbus State Community College;
Annie McKinlay, North Idaho College; Gordon McLean, Arizona Western
College; Scott McLean, Arizona Western College; Miriam McMullen-Pastrick,
Pennsylvania State University at Erie, Behrend; Rebecca Meisnebach, Concord
College; Deborah Meltsner, Old Dominion University; Andrew Merolla, Ohio
State University; John Morrison, Rollins College; Alfred Mueller, Pennsylvania
State University at Mont Alto; Lisa Mueller, Northeast Iowa Community
College; Donna Munde, Mercer County Community College; Diana Karol Nagy,
University of Florida; Helen Nelson, Spalding University; Kathleen Norris,
Loyola Marymount University; Linda Norris, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Karen O’Donnell, Finger Lakes Community College; Jennifer O’Dorisio,
Pomona High School; Richard Olsen, University of North Carolina at Wilmington; Susan Ondercin, Carroll Community College; Elenie Opffer, Regis University; Donald Painter Jr., University of South Florida; Teresa Palmitessa,
Pennsylvania State University at Erie, Behrend; Emily Paramonova, Cogswell
Polytechnical College; Daniel Paulnock, Saint Paul College; Holly Payne, Western Kentucky University; Karl Payton, Le Tourneau University; Kimberly Pearce,
De Anza College; Sheila Peebles, Baldwin-Wallace College; Ray Penn, Lincoln
Memorial University; Pamela Perkins, San Diego City College; Jean Perry, Glendale Community College; William Petkanas, Western Connecticut State
University; Chuck Pierce, Central Carolina Technical College; Dann Pierce,
University of Portland; Michael Pitts, Los Angeles Southwest College; Dwight
Podgurski, Colorado Christian University; Linda Powers, Wofford College; Joyce
Puls, Baker College; Kathleen Quimby, Messiah University; Susan Rabideau,
University of Wisconsin, Fox Valley; Alan Ragains, Windward Community College; Gail Reid, State University of West Georgia; Pamela Reid, Copiah-Lincoln
Community College; Paula Reif, Carl Albert State College; Larry Reynolds,
Johnson City Community College; William Richter, Lenoir-Rhyne College; Lisa
Riede, Lockhaven University of Pennsylvania; Nita Ritzke, University of Mary;
Rick Roberts, University of San Francisco; Patricia Rockwell, University of Louisiana at Lafayette; Rita Rosenthal, Boston College and Stonehill College; Susan
Sanders, Northern Essex Community College; Carol Saunders, Chipola Junior
College; Kimberly Schwartz, University of Dubuque; Steve Schwarze, University
of Montana; Marlene Sebeck, Wheeling Jesuit University; Lois Self, Northern
Illinois University; Susan Selk, El Paso Community College; Colleen ShaughnessyZeena, Salem State College; Charla Markham Shaw, University of Texas at
Arlington; Alisa Shubb, American River College; Elizabeth Simas, California
State University at Northridge; Jacqueline Simon, Palomar College; John Kares
Smith, SUNY Oswego State University; Andrew Snyder, Saint Gregory’s University; Jay Soldner, Western Wisconsin Technical College; Rick Soller, College of
Lake County; Pam Speights, Wharton County Junior College; Ebba Stedillie,
Casper College; Susan Stehlik, Rutgers University, Newark Campus; Lesa Stern,
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville; James Stewart, Tennessee Technical
University; Pamela Stovall, University of New Mexico, Gallup; Anthony Stubbs,
Iowa Lakes Community College South; Pat Sutherland, Tennessee Wesleyan
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xxvii
College; Michael Swinford, Shorter College; Sarah Symonds, Coastal Carolina
Community College; Kelly Tait, University of Nevada, Reno; Georgia Talsma,
Mount Marty College; April Dupree Taylor, University of South Alabama;
Katherine Taylor, University of Louisville; Donna Thomsen, Johnson & Wales
University; Ray Tipton, Walters State Community College; Hank Tkachuk,
Concordia College, Moorehead; Candice Todd, Lynchburg College; Michael
Tomaschyk, Cuyahoga Community College, Western; Amy Trombley, Western
Michigan University; Anita Turpin, Roanoke College; Clint Uhrich, Luther College; Joseph Valcourt, Central Carolina Technical College; Marilyn Valentino,
Lorain County Community College; Jay VerLinden, Humboldt State University;
Valerie Vlahakis, John Wood Community College; Steve Vrooman, Texas
Lutheran University; Chris Wagner, Cosumnes River College; Anthony Wainwright, Onondaga Community College; Lisa Waite, Kent State University, Stark
Campus; Bill Wallace, Northeastern State University; Dennis Waller, Northwest Nazarene University; David Weinandy, Aquinas College; Nancy Wendt,
Oregon State University; Estelle Wenson, Stonehill College; Beverly WestDorny, San Joaquin Delta College; Steven Wiegenstein, Culver-Stockton College; Thomas Wilkinson, Rowan University; David Williams, Texas Technical
University; Frances Winsor, Pennsylvania State University at Altoona; Marianne
Worthington, Cumberland College; Miriam Zimmerman, Notre Dame de Namur
University; and Joe Zubrick, University of Maine, Fort Kent.
Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Second Edition
Cameron Basquiat, Community College of Southern Nevada; Carolyn Clark,
Salt Lake Community College; Letitia Dace, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth; Francis Dance, University of Denver; Layne Dearden, Brigham Young
University, Idaho; Rebecca Faery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Joyce
Fernandes, Bristol Community College; John Giertz, Bakersfield College;
Heather Grace, University of Pittsburgh, Bradford; Marc Martin, San Francisco
State University; Charles McMahan, Vincennes University; Deborah Meltsner,
Old Dominion University; Andrea Morgan, Georgia Perimeter College; Dann
Pierce, University of Portland; Patricia Rockwell, University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Robert Sadowski, University of Michigan, Flint; Michael Searcy, University
of Iowa and Scott Community College; Lisa Stefani, Grossmont College; Elena
Strauman, Auburn University; Jeremy Teitelbaum, California Polytechnic State
University; Gregory Thomas, Morgan Community College; and Robert Witkowski,
Midlands Technical College.
Reviewers and Survey Respondents, First Edition
Linda Brown, El Paso Community College; Tamara Burk, Columbia College;
Lawrence J. Chase, California State University, Sacramento; Helen Chester, Milwaukee Area Technical College; Jeanine Congalton, Fullerton College; Lauren
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xxviii Preface
Sewell Coulter, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga; Karen D. Covey, New
River Community College; Michal Dale, Southwest Missouri State; William F.
Ferreira, Houston Community College, Southwest; Eric Fife, College of Charleston; William Fustield, University of Pittsburgh; Kathleen M. Galvin, Northwestern University; Kelby Halone, Clemson University; William J. Jordan,
North Carolina State University; Ruth Ann Kinzey, University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Lt. Col. George Luker, USAF Academy; Joseph Martinez, El Paso
Community College; Virgil Moberg, Flagler College; Carlos Perez, Maple Woods
Community College; Jean Perry, Glendale Community College; Tina Pieraccini,
State University of New York, Oswego; Lora Sager, Greenville Technical College;
Dr. Roy Schwartzmann, Northwest Missouri State University; John Kares Smith,
State University of New York, Oswego; Kimberly Terrill, Francis Marion University; and Glenda Treadaway, Appalachian State University.
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Contents
How to Use This Book and Digital Resources v
Preface xi
GETTING STARTED WITH CONFIDENCE
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
1
3
Becoming a Public Speaker
7
Why Study Public Speaking? 8
Gain a Vital Life Skill 8
Advance Your Professional Goals 8
Enhance Your Career as a Student 9
Find New Opportunities for Civic Engagement 9
The Classical Roots of Public Speaking 10
The Canons of Rhetoric 11
A Rich and Relevant Heritage 12
Learning to Speak in Public 13
Draw on Conversational Skills 13
Draw on Skills in Composition 13
Develop an Effective Oral Style 13
Become an Inclusive Speaker 14
Public Speaking as a Form of Communication 14
Public Speaking as an Interactive Communication
Process 15
Similarities and Differences between Public Speaking and
Other Forms of Communication 16
CHAPTER
2
Giving It a Try: Preparing Your First
Speech 18
A Brief Overview of the Speechmaking Process 18
Analyze the Audience 18
Select a Topic 18
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Determine the Speech Purpose 19
Compose a Thesis Statement 19
Develop the Main Points 20
Gather Supporting Material 20
Separate the Speech into Its Major Parts 20
Outline the Speech 21
Introduction 22
Body 22
Conclusion 23
Consider Presentation Aids 23
Practice Delivering the Speech 23
c CHECKLIST: Record the Speech to Bolster Confidence 24
c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Identifying Linguistic Issues as You
Practice Your Speech 24
Take the Plunge 25
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: My First Speech 25
c SPEECH OF INTRODUCTION: Homeschooled to High
School: My Journey of Growth and Change, Teresa
Gorrell 26
c FROM IDEA TO SPEECH: How to Transform an Idea into
a Polished Speech 30
c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INTRODUCTORY SPEECH:
The Dance of Life, Ashley White 33
PUBLIC SPEAKING BASICS
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
3
37
Managing Speech Anxiety
42
What Makes Us Anxious about Public Speaking? 42
Lack of Positive Experience 42
Feeling Different 43
Being the Center of Attention 43
Pinpoint the Onset of Public Speaking Anxiety 43
c CHECKLIST: Recognizing and Overcoming Your Underlying
Fears about Public Speaking 44
Pre-Preparation Anxiety 44
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Preparation Anxiety 45
Pre-Performance Anxiety 45
Performance Anxiety 45
Use Proven Strategies to Build Your Confidence 46
Prepare and Practice 46
Modify Thoughts and Attitudes 46
c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Confidence and Culture: When
English Isn’t Your First Language 47
Visualize Success 47
Activate the Relaxation Response 48
Relaxation Audio Download
Briefly Meditate 49
Use Stress-Control Breathing 49
Use Movement to Minimize Anxiety 49
Practice Natural Gestures 49
Move as You Speak 50
Enjoy the Occasion 50
Learn from Feedback 50
c CHECKLIST: Preparing to Speak With Confidence 50
CHAPTER
4
Listeners and Speakers
51
Recognize the Centrality of Listening 51
Understand the Difference between Hearing and Listening 52
Recognize That We Listen Selectively 53
Strive for the Open Exchange of Ideas 53
c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Learning by Listening 54
Anticipate Obstacles to Active Listening 54
Minimize External and Internal Distractions 54
Guard against Scriptwriting and Defensive Listening 55
Beware of Laziness and Overconfidence 55
Refrain from Multitasking 55
c CHECKLIST: Dealing With Distractions during Delivery of a
Speech 55
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: The Responsibilities of Listening in
the Public Arena 56
Work to Overcome Cultural Barriers 56
Become a More Active Listener 56
Set Listening Goals 57
Listen for Main Ideas 57
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Listening Styles and Cultural
Differences 58
Evaluate Evidence and Reasoning 59
c CHECKLIST: Use the Thought/Speech Differential to
Listen Critically 59
Offer Constructive and Compassionate Feedback 60
Be Honest and Fair in Your Evaluation 60
Adjust to the Speaker’s Style 60
Be Compassionate in Your Criticism 60
Peer Evaluation Form 61
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE:
CHAPTER
5
Ethical Public Speaking
62
Take Responsibility for Your Words 62
Demonstrate Competence and Character 62
Respect Your Listeners’ Values 63
Evaluate Frameworks for Ethical Decision
Making 64
Bring Your Own Values into Focus 65
Contribute to Positive Public Discourse 65
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Identifying Values 66
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Comparing Cultural
Values 67
Use Your Rights of Free Speech Responsibly 67
Avoid Hate Speech 68
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Speech Codes on Campus:
Protection or Censorship? 69
Observe the Ground Rules for Ethical Speaking 70
Focus on Dignity and Integrity 70
Be Trustworthy 71
Demonstrate Respect 71
Make Responsible Choices 71
Demonstrate Fairness 72
Be Civic-Minded 72
Avoid Plagiarism 72
Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism 73
Citing Quotations, Paraphrases, and
Summaries 73
c CHECKLIST: Correctly Quote, Paraphrase, and Summarize
Information 74
Fair Use, Copyright, and Ethical Speaking 75
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: An Ethical Inventory 76
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AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND TOPIC
SELECTION
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
6
79
Analyzing the Audience 83
Adapt to Audience Psychology: Who Are Your Listeners? 83
Appeal to Audience Members’ Attitudes, Beliefs, and
Values 84
“If the Value Fits, Use It” 84
Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Topic, Speaker,
and Occasion 85
Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Topic 85
If the Topic Is New to Listeners 85
If Listeners Know Relatively Little about the Topic 85
If Listeners Are Negatively Disposed toward
the Topic 85
If Listeners Hold Positive Attitudes toward the Topic 86
If Listeners Are a Captive Audience 86
Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Speaker 86
c CHECKLIST: Appeal to Audience Attitudes, Beliefs, and
Values 87
Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Occasion 87
Adapt Your Message to Audience Demographics 87
Appeal to Your Target Audience 87
Age 88
Ethnic or Cultural Background 88
Socioeconomic Status 89
Income 89
Occupation 89
Education 90
Religion 90
c CHECKLIST: Respond to the Audience as You Speak 90
Political Affiliation 91
Gender 91
Group Affiliations 91
c CHECKLIST: Reviewing Your Speech in Light of Audience
Demographics 92
Disability 92
Adapt to Diverse Audiences 92
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Adapt to Cross-Cultural Values 93
Hofstede’s Value-Dimensions Model: Cultural Values and
National Differences 94
Individualism versus Collectivism 94
Uncertainty Avoidance 94
Power Distance 94
Masculinity versus Femininity 95
Long- versus Short-Term Time Orientation 95
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Consult Global Opinion Polls 96
Focus on Universal Values 96
Techniques for Learning about Your Audience 96
Interview Audience Members 97
Survey the Audience 97
Consult Published Sources 99
Analyze the Speech Setting and Context 100
Size of Audience and Physical Setting 100
Time and Length of Speech 100
The Rhetorical Situation 100
c CHECKLIST: Analyzing the Speech Situation 101
CHAPTER
7
Selecting a Topic and Purpose
102
Exploring Topics for Your Speech 102
Assigned versus Self-Selected Topics 102
Identify Personal Interests 103
Consider Current Events and Controversial Issues 104
Survey Grassroots Issues: Engage the Community 104
Steer Clear of Overused and Trivial Topics 104
Try Brainstorming to Generate Ideas 104
Word Association 104
Topic Mapping 105
Internet Tools 105
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH: Narrowing Your Topic Using
a Library Portal 106
c CHECKLIST: Criteria for Selecting a Topic 108
Identify the General Purpose of Your Speech 108
When the General Speech Purpose Is to Inform 108
When the General Speech Purpose Is to Persuade 108
When the General Speech Purpose Is to Mark a Special
Occasion 110
Refine the Topic and Purpose 110
c CHECKLIST: Identifying Your General Speech Purpose 110
Narrow the Topic 111
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Narrowing Your Topic 111
Narrowing Your Topic to Fit
Your Audience 112
Form a Specific Speech Purpose 114
From Topic and Purpose to Thesis Statement 114
Postpone Development of Main Points 114
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Ethical Considerations in Selecting a
Topic and Purpose 115
Use the Thesis Statement to Guide Your Speech
Preparation 117
Make the Thesis Statement Relevant and Motivating 117
c CHECKLIST: Formulating the Thesis Statement 117
c CHECKLIST:
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH:
SUPPORTING THE SPEECH
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
8
121
Developing Supporting Material
125
Use a Variety of Supporting Materials 125
Consider the Target Audience 125
Offer Examples 126
Brief Examples 127
Extended Examples 127
Hypothetical Examples 127
Share Stories 128
c CHECKLIST: Selecting the Right Example or Story 129
Draw on Testimony 129
c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Broaden Your Listeners’
Perspectives 129
c CHECKLIST: Evaluating the Credibility of Testimony 130
Provide Facts and Statistics 130
Use Statistics Selectively 131
Use Statistics Accurately 131
Use Frequencies to Indicate Counts 131
Use Percentages to Express Proportion 131
Use Types of Averages Accurately 132
Present Statistics Ethically 133
Use Only Reliable Sources 133
Present Statistics in Context 133
Avoid Confusing Statistics with “Absolute Truth” 133
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Orally Refer to Your Sources 133
Avoid Cherry-Picking 133
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Evaluating the Validity of the
Statistics You Cite 134
Use Visual Aids Whenever Possible 134
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Using Statistics in Your
Speech: An Ethical Inventory 135
Win Acceptance of Your Supporting Materials 135
CHAPTER
9
Finding Credible Print and Online
Materials 136
Assess Your Research Needs 136
Consider a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources 136
Use a Library Portal to Access Credible Sources 137
Explore Primary Sources 138
Consider Personal Knowledge and Experience 138
Access Digital Collections 138
Conduct Interviews 138
c CHECKLIST: Finding Speeches Online 139
Preparing for the Interview 139
Structuring the Interview 140
The Opening: Establish a Spirit of Collaboration 140
The Body: Posing the Questions 140
The Closing: Recheck and Confirm 140
c CHECKLIST: Preparing for the Interview 141
Recording the Interview 141
Distribute Surveys 141
Explore Secondary Sources 142
Books 142
Newspapers and Periodicals 142
Blogs and Social News Sites 143
Government Information 144
Reference Works 144
Encyclopedias 144
Almanacs 144
Biographical Resources 145
Books of Quotations 145
Poetry Collections 145
Atlases 145
Conduct Smart Searches 145
Access Subject Guides 146
Use Search Engines Selectively 146
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Create Effective Keywords and Subject Headings 147
Create Effective Keywords 147
Identify the Correct Subject Headings 147
Use Advanced Search 148
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Discovering Diversity in
Reference Works 149
Be a Critical Consumer of Information 149
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH: Evaluating Web
Sources 150
Distinguish among Information, Propaganda,
Misinformation, and Disinformation 152
CHAPTER
10
Citing Sources in Your Speech
153
Alert Listeners to Key Source Information 153
Establish the Source’s Trustworthiness 154
Avoid a Mechanical Delivery 155
Vary the Wording 155
Lead with the Claim 155
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH: Demonstrating Your
Sources’ Reliability and Credibility 156
Overview of Source Types with Sample Oral Citations 158
Book 158
Reference Work 158
Print Article 158
Online-Only Magazine, Newspaper, Journal 158
Organization Website 159
Blog 159
Television or Radio Program 159
Online Video 159
Testimony 159
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH: Recording and Citing Web
Sources 160
Interview and Other Personal Communication 162
Credit Sources in Presentation Aids 162
Properly Citing Facts and Statistics 162
Properly Citing Summarized, Paraphrased, and Quoted
Information 163
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH: Recording and Citing Books
c FROM SOURCE TO SPEECH: Recording and Citing
Articles from Periodicals
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ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
11
167
Organizing the Body of the Speech
171
Beyond the Speech: Organizing as a Life Skill 171
Parts of a Speech 172
Use the Purpose and Thesis Statements as Guides 173
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Do the Speech Points
Illustrate or Prove the Thesis? 173
Restrict the Number of Main Points 174
Restrict Each Main Point to a Single Idea 174
Use Supporting Points to Substantiate Your Claims 175
Pay Close Attention to Coordination and Subordination 176
Recheck Division of Main and Subpoints 177
Strive for a Unified, Coherent, and Balanced Outline 177
c CHECKLIST: Do the Speech Points Reflect Unity,
Coherence, and Balance? 178
Use Transitions to Give Direction to the Speech 179
Use Transitions between Speech Points 179
Use Transitions between Supporting Points 179
Use Transitions between Main Points 180
Use Previews and Summaries as Transitions 180
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Using Transitions 181
c FROM POINT TO POINT: Using Transitions to Guide Your
Listeners 182
CHAPTER
12
Types of Organizational
Arrangements 184
c CHECKLIST: Choosing an Organizational Pattern 184
Arranging Speech Points Chronologically 185
Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern 185
Arranging Speech Points Using a Causal (Cause-Effect)
Pattern 186
Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern 187
Arranging Speech Points Topically 189
Arranging Speech Points Using a Narrative Pattern 189
Subpoints Need Not Match the Pattern of Main Points 190
c CHECKLIST: Evaluating Organizational Patterns 190
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Organizational Patterns and
Diverse Audiences 191
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13
Outlining the Speech
xxxix
192
Plan on Creating Two Outlines 192
Use Sentences, Phrases, or Key Words 192
The Sentence Outline Format 192
The Phrase Outline Format 193
The Key-Word Outline Format 194
Use a Key-Word Outline for Optimal Eye Contact 194
Create a Working Outline First 195
Separate the Introduction and Conclusion from the
Body 195
Indicate Your Sources 195
c CHECKLIST: Steps in Creating a Working Outline 196
Create a Title 196
Sample Working Outline 196
Prepare a Speaking Outline for Delivery 202
Indicate Delivery Cues 202
Practice the Speech 202
c CHECKLIST: Tips on Using Notecards or Sheets of
Paper 203
Sample Speaking Outline 203
Full-Text Speech 207
c CHECKLIST: Steps in Creating a Speaking Outline 207
c SAMPLE INFORMATIVE SPEECH: The History and Sport
of Mountain Biking, Zachary Dominque 208
INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND
LANGUAGE
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
14
215
Developing the Introduction
219
Functions of the Introduction 219
Gain Audience Attention 219
c CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Preparing the
Introduction 220
Use a Quotation 220
Tell a Story 220
Pose Questions 220
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Offer Unusual Information 221
Use Humor—Perhaps 221
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Using Humor
Appropriately 222
Refer to the Audience and Establish Common
Ground 222
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Humor and Culture: When the
Jokes Fall Flat 223
Refer to the Occasion 223
Preview the Purpose and Topic 224
Establish Your Credibility as a Speaker 224
Preview the Main Points 224
Motivate the Audience to Accept Your Goals 225
SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: How Effective Is Your
Introduction? 226
CHAPTER
15
Developing the Conclusion
227
Functions of Conclusions 227
c CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Preparing the Conclusion 227
Signal the Close of a Speech and Provide Closure 228
Summarize the Key Points 228
Reiterate the Topic and Speech Purpose 228
Challenge the Audience to Respond 229
Make the Conclusion Memorable 229
Use Quotations 230
Tell a Story 230
Pose a Rhetorical Question 231
Bring Your Speech Full Circle 231
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: How Effective Is Your
Conclusion? 231
CHAPTER
16
Using Language to Style the Speech
232
Prepare Your Speeches for the Ear 232
Strive for Simplicity 233
Be Concise 233
Experiment with Phrases and Sentence Fragments 234
Make Frequent Use of Repetition 234
Use Personal Pronouns 234
c CHECKLIST: Personalizing Your Speech with Personal
Pronouns 235
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xli
Use Concrete Language and Vivid Imagery 235
Offer Vivid Imagery 235
Use Descriptive Adjectives and Strong Verbs 235
c CHECKLIST: Is Your Speech Language Concrete? 236
Use Figures of Speech 236
Choose Words That Build Credibility 238
Use Words Appropriately 238
Use Words Accurately 238
Use the Active Voice 239
Use Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Neutral
Language 239
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Adapting Your Language to
Diverse Audiences 240
Choose Language That Creates a Lasting Impression 241
Use Repetition for Rhythm and Reinforcement 241
Use Alliteration for a Poetic Quality 242
Experiment with Parallelism 242
c CHECKLIST: Does Your Speech Incorporate Effective Oral
Style? 242
VOCAL AND NONVERBAL DELIVERY
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
17
245
Methods of Delivery
249
Qualities of Effective Delivery 249
Strive for Naturalness 249
Show Enthusiasm 250
Project a Sense of Confidence 250
Be Direct 250
Select a Method of Delivery 251
Speaking from Manuscript 251
Speaking from Memory 252
c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Manuscript
Delivery 252
Speaking Impromptu 253
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: A Tool for Good and Evil 254
Speaking Extemporaneously 254
c CHECKLIST: Ready for the Call: Preparing for the
Extemporaneous Speech 255
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xlii Contents
CHAPTER
18
The Voice in Delivery
256
Adjust Your Speaking Volume 256
Vary Your Intonation 256
c CHECKLIST: Tips on Using a Microphone 257
Adjust Your Speaking Rate 258
Use Strategic Pauses 258
Strive for Vocal Variety 259
Carefully Pronounce and Articulate Words 259
c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Vocal Variety and the Non-Native
Speaker 259
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Practice Check for Vocal
Effectiveness 260
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Using Dialect (Language
Variation) with Care 261
CHAPTER
19
The Body in Delivery
262
Enhance Your Credibility Through Nonverbal
Cues 262
Pay Attention to Body Language 262
Animate Your Facial Expressions 263
Maintain Eye Contact 263
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Effective
Facial Expressions 263
Use Gestures That Feel Natural 264
Create a Feeling of Immediacy 264
c CHECKLIST: Tips for Effective Gesturing 264
c CHECKLIST: Broad Dress Code Guidelines 265
Maintain Good Posture 265
Dress Appropriately 265
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Nonverbal Communication
Patterns in Different Cultures 266
Practice the Delivery 266
Focus on the Message 267
Record the Speech 267
Be Prepared to Revise Your Speaking
Notes 267
Practice under Realistic Conditions 267
Time Your Speech 268
Plan Ahead and Practice Often 268
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PRESENTATION AIDS
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
20
271
Speaking with Presentation Aids
275
Functions of Presentation Aids 275
Help Listeners Process and Retain Information 275
Promote Interest and Motivation 275
Convey Information Concisely 276
Lend a Professional Image 276
Types of Presentation Aids 276
Props and Models 276
Pictures 277
Graphs and Charts 278
Audio, Video, and Multimedia 281
c CHECKLIST: Tips for Creating Effective Pictograms 281
c CHECKLIST: Tips for Creating Effective Line, Bar, and Pie
Graphs 282
c CHECKLIST: Tips on Incorporating Audio and Video into
Your Presentation 282
Options for Displaying the Presentation Aid 283
Computer-Generated Aids and Displays 283
Flip Charts 283
Chalkboards and Whiteboards 283
Handouts 283
c FROM IDEA TO IMAGE: Using Presentation Aids 284
c CHECKLIST: Incorporating Presentation Aids into Your
Speech 287
CHAPTER
21
Designing Presentation Aids
288
Keep the Design Simple 288
Assign Each Point a Separate Slide 288
Word Slides in the Active Voice 288
Avoid Clutter 289
Use Design Elements Consistently 289
Select Appropriate Typeface Styles and Fonts 289
c CHECKLIST: Applying the Principles of Simplicity
and Continuity 290
c CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Typefaces, Fonts, and Sizes
Effectively 292
Use Color Carefully 292
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xliv Contents
CHAPTER
22
Using Presentation Software
294
Give a Speech, Not a Slide Show 294
Avoid Technical Glitches 294
c CHECKLIST: Avoid Technical Glitches 295
A Brief Guide to Using PowerPoint, Keynote,
and Prezi 295
Developing a Plan 295
Compose a Presentation in Microsoft
PowerPoint 296
View Options 296
Masters 297
Inserting Objects 298
Inserting Video 298
Transition and Animation Effect 298
Compose a Presentation in Apple
Keynote 299
Formatting Text 300
Adding Slides 300
Inserting Objects 300
Transition and Animation Effects 301
Navigation 301
Compose a Presentation in Prezi 302
Getting Started 302
Menus 302
Path Points 302
Inserting Objects 304
Navigation 304
Finding Media for Presentations 305
c CHECKLIST: Tips for Successfully Using Presentation
Software in Your Speech 305
c FROM SLIDE SHOW TO PRESENTATION: Getting Ready
to Deliver a PowerPoint, Keynote, or Prezi
Presentation 306
Avoiding Copyright Infringement 308
c CHECKLIST: Ensuring Legal Use of Media Acquired
Electronically 308
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FORMS OF SPEECHES
SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
CHAPTER
23
313
The Informative Speech
322
Focus on Sharing Knowledge 322
Enlighten Rather Than Advocate 322
Use Audience Analysis 322
Present New and Interesting Information 323
Look for Ways to Increase Understanding 324
c CHECKLIST: Help Listeners Follow Along 324
Categories of Informative Speeches 325
Speeches about Objects or Phenomena 325
Speeches about People 325
Speeches about Events 325
Speeches about Processes 326
Speeches about Issues 326
Speeches about Concepts 326
Decide How to Convey the Information 326
Definition 327
Description 328
Demonstration 328
Explanation 328
Take Steps to Reduce Confusion 329
Use Analogies to Build on Prior Knowledge 329
Demonstrate Underlying Causes 330
c CHECKLIST: Strategies for Explaining Complex
Information 330
Appeal to Different Learning Styles 331
Arrange Speech Points in a Pattern 331
c CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Clearly Communicating Your
Informative Message 333
c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH:
Freeganism: More Than a Free Lunch, DJ McCabe 333
c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH: Social
Media, Social Identity, and Social Causes, Anna Davis 338
CHAPTER
24
The Persuasive Speech
344
What Is a Persuasive Speech? 344
Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience
Choices 344
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xlvi Contents
Conditions for Choosing a Persuasive
Purpose 345
Persuasive Speeches Limit Alternatives 345
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Persuasive Speeches Respect
Audience Choices 345
Persuasive Speeches Serve as Guides 346
Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos 346
Logos: Appeals to Reason 347
Appeals to Logos Using the Syllogism 347
Pathos: Appeals to Emotion 349
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Using Emotions Ethically 350
Ethos: Appeals Based on the Speaker’s Character 351
c CHECKLIST: Displaying Ethos in the Persuasive
Speech 352
Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Needs and Motivations 352
Persuading Listeners by Focusing on Motivation 352
Persuading Listeners by Appealing to Their Needs 352
Persuading Listeners by Focusing on What’s Most
Relevant to Them 353
Persuading Listeners by Appealing to the Reasons for
Their Behavior 355
Persuading Listeners through Speaker Credibility 356
c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Tips for Increasing Speaker
Credibility 357
c CHECKLIST:
CHAPTER
25
Developing Arguments for the Persuasive
Speech 358
What Is an Argument? 358
Stating a Claim 358
Providing Evidence 359
Providing Reasons 359
c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Engaging in Arguments in the
Public Arena 360
Types of Claims Used in Persuasive Speeches 361
Claims of Fact 361
Claims of Value 361
Claims of Policy 361
c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Addressing Culture in the
Persuasive Speech 362
Types of Evidence 363
Secondary Sources (“External Evidence”) 363
Spe…

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