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4

Global Health Issue: Tobacco Use

Darwhin Paladino

Course

Miami Dade College-Medical Campus

April 17, 2022

Introduction

I chose tobacco use because the increasing rates of tobacco use have raised serious public health concerns. Among the leading causes of death globally is cigarette smoking which has been associated with many illnesses including respiratory disease, cancer, and heart disease. There are numerous people dying globally as a result of tobacco use. “As many as 9% of all deaths are attributable to tobacco consumption, making smoking cessation the most cost-effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality” (Perez-Warnisher et l., 2021). According to the authors, even though developed countries are making positive achievements in countering tobacco use, it is still expected that by 2030 eight million people are going to die every year.

The use of tobacco has continued to spread worldwide over the years. Currently, the increase is being experienced in developing countries in the low and middle-income classes. However, research by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2021) indicates that deaths are high in high-income countries compared to low-income countries. This can be explained by the gradual effects of cigarette smoking on overall health. It is expected that mortality in developing countries will be increasing in the future. Deaths will increase even if policies of reduced tobacco use are successful.

Over the past years, developed countries have not managed to achieve uniform tobacco use reduction. There are smaller declines among young adults, individuals living in poverty, and women. There are different factors that influence the use of tobacco such as education and socio-economic status. Other factors are at a system level such as tobacco control policies, regulations, and regional economic development. According to Mons (2022), countries that need clues to improve tobacco use control must consider socio-economic and socio-demographic vulnerabilities. This will ensure they establish effective policies for tobacco use regulation and control.

The number of women using tobacco has been increasing compared to the number of men. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2021) asserts that currently, around 23% of adults globally are using tobacco whereby females are around 250 million and males make up to 1 billion. Further research indicates that this gap is narrow because of the growing number of female smokers. It is unfortunate that tobacco use prevalence is high in developing countries. Over 80% of smokers globally are in less developed countries (Perez-Warnisher et al., 2021). It is projected that in 25 years to come, the number of smokers will go up by over 1.5 billion. As a result, the number of deaths related to tobacco use will surpass the number of deaths resulting from suicide, tuberculosis, AIDS, and motor vehicle accidents combined.

In conclusion, there is need for strong global health governance on tobacco use and the establishment of a framework on tobacco control. As Lee et al., (2016) says, even though the prevalence is different in different parts of the globe, tobacco is an issue of global concern. There is need to control every sector that involves tobacco use. For instance, Harvey (2018) believes that tobacco companies have contributed to this increase in tobacco use since they are after increasing their sales. Therefore, these companies need to be regulated. There are organizations which are making advancements towards reducing tobacco use. “The Bloomberg Philanthropies foundation has invested nearly $1 billion to support policies that are proven to reduce tobacco use and protect people from its deadly effects” (Harvey, 2016). Preventive measures such as helping those who are ready to quit, protecting secondhand smokers, warnings on the health effects of tobacco, raising taxes, and banning tobacco advertisements will help reduce its use.

References

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2021). Global Health Protection and Security: Tobacco. Division of Global Health Protection.

Harvey, J. (2018). Tobacco Use and Heart Disease: A Growing Global Health Challenge. Penn Medicine News.

Lee, K., Eckhardt, J., & Holden, C. (2016). Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda. Palgrave communications, 2(1), 1-12.

Mons, U. (2022). Strengthening tobacco control must remain a global health priority. The Lancet Global Health, 10(2), e161-e162.

Perez-Warnisher, M. T., de Miguel, M. P. C., & Seijo, L. M. (2018). Tobacco use worldwide: legislative efforts to curb consumption. Annals of global health, 84(4), 571.

World Health Organization (WHO, 2021). Tobacco. Retrieved from

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco

NUR4667 / Professional Paper

Rubric for NUR 4667 Professional Paper

Criteria Outstanding Acceptable Unacceptable Points

Introduction

Up to 10 points

Provides an introduction to the

topic of the paper. Explains the

significance and rationale for topic

chosen.

Minimally compliant with

guidelines.

Non-compliant with

guidelines.

Content

Up to 30 points

Provides a thorough discussion of

the topic and/or answers specific

questions depending on the topic

chosen:

1) Description of a Health System

2) Global Health Issue

Although discussion of the

topic and/or answers the

questions are provided, they

lack rigor and depth.

Inadequate or minimal

discussion of the topic

and/or questions are left

unanswered. Non-compliant

with guidelines.

Literature Cited

Up to 10 points

A minimum of six (6) current

references (within the last five

years) are cited in the paper. Each

reference should be specifically

related to the

topic or content of the

paper.

Six (6) current references

are selected, however they

were not appropriate to the

topic or content of the
paper.

Less than six (6) references

are selected, and/or one or

more of the references are

not current.

Conclusion

Up to 10 points

The conclusion of the paper

summarizes the information

presented, and relates the

knowledge gained back to the topic

of the paper.

Minimally compliant with
guidelines.

Non-compliant with
guidelines.

Organization &

Clarity of Writing

Up to 20 points

The paper flowed well with clarity,

and was suitably organized.

Writing is crisp, clear, and succinct.

The writer incorporates the active

voice when appropriate.

Writing and organization is

generally clear, but

unnecessary words are

occasionally used. Meaning

is sometimes hidden.

Paragraph or sentence

structure is often repetitive.

The paper poorly organized

and writing was difficult to

follow throughout. It is

hard to know what the

writer is trying to express.

Writing is convoluted.

APA Format,

Grammar,

Spelling,

Plagerism

Up to 20 points

Font, spacing, and APA format are

correct. All needed citations were

included in the report. References

matched the citations, and all were

encoded in APA format. Spelling

and grammar are correct.

Font, spacing, or APA

format

have minimal errors.

Citations and reference list

have minimal errors.

Spelling and grammar

errors are minimal.

Font, spacing, and APA

format are incorrect.

Information is not cited or is

cited incorrectly. Misspelled

words, incorrect grammar,

and improper punctuation

are evident.

Total Points

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