Troy University The Role and Importance of Non Verbal Communication Proposal

Topic Approval

Building to your final paper or video presentation, I want to have a chance to give feedback and guidance. Your topic approval assignment will include the direction of your project (paper or video) with an introduction, thesis, main points, and some connection to the course elaborated. I expect the proposal for your project to be about 500-700 words describing your plan and areas of focus on the topic below.

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The proposal will include an overview of your final project idea, along with at least two APA citations. At minimum, you should create a thesis summarizing general main points and some connection to the course elaborated. You are basically answering the question, “Hey! Here is what my idea is for this final project, and here is what I will focus on, and here are just a few resources I will be using.”

The prompt for the final paper or video presentation:

You will respond to the question, “Part of the University course description for this class indicates exploring the social effects of communication. Reflecting on the topics covered in this class, which topic do you feel most affects your social relationships, and why?”

Use the syllabus, library databases, and other media to find an area of interest to you, and then conduct research to respond to this prompt, focusing on relevant terms and adding to what you have learned in the class.

For example, you could focus on interpersonal communication and frames of reference in romance, or work groups, or communication fallacies…the list is long here!

Intro to Communication
C .
R E S U LT S :
( 2 0 1 8 ) .
P U B L I S H I N G .
( 1 1 T H
E D. ) .
An organization’s success depends on:
Definition of Communication
• “to make common to many, to share”
• The process of people sharing thoughts,
ideas, and feelings, with each other in a
commonly understandable way
The Basic Model
• Sender
• Receiver
• Message
• Channel
• Feedback
• Environment
• Noise
Before the sender sends a message:
• Stimulus – can be internal or external
• Motivation – the benefits
• Encoding
Putting the message in the form to send
• Decoding
The receiver process of determining meaning
Frame of Reference
• Our background, experience, cultural
expectations, environment…
• None are identical, even identical
The communication fallacy
Leveling – some details
are lost
Assimilated – clarified
to conform to other
messages we might
Condensed – message is
shortened for memory
Sharpened – only
“important” details
Embellished – details
added, context added
***100% percent
correct communication
is simply a logical
• Eye
• Face
• Posture
• Hands and feet
• The Statue
• F2F, telephone, text, call, email, audio, TV, radio, newsletter…
• The medium selected to send the message
Depends on needs and abilities of sender/receiver
Consider amount and speed of feedback
Do you need permanent record?
What is cost?
What is the formality needed for situation?
• Verbal and visual response to a message
• Advantages
❑ Reduces misunderstanding
❑ Improves accuracy
❑ Makes people feel valued
• Disadvantages
❑ Feels under attack
❑ Time-consuming
❑ Hard to generate quality responses
• Time and place
• Also, physical and social surroundings
• Be aware of mood!
• Location, lights, climate – are things that communicators can be able to control
• Consider the example of time of a meeting – 8 am vs. Noon vs. 4:30 pm? Which meeting
will have more focused workers?
• Internal
Preoccupations, knowledge
• External
Cold air, phones ringing
Intro to Communication
Definition of Communication
• “to make common to many, to share”
• The process of people sharing thoughts,
ideas, and feelings, with each other in a
commonly understandable way
Mass Media Communication
• Last week, we established the definition and model of communication.
• We acknowledge that channels of communication impact our ability to encode and decode
• The reading for week 2 identifies specific mass media channels that developed through
history. I recommend reading slowly and making a timeline for your notes.
• You can see that the channels are MANY, and we are only doing an Introduction course. For
future consideration, our interpersonal, group COM, multimedia, and intercultural COM
classes cover details in specific media areas you might find interesting!
Media History
• Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a
government without newspapers,
or newspapers without a government,
I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.
— Thomas Jefferson, U.S. president
Mass media idea-sharing started largely due
to religious and political motivation.
In the
(not so much a focus on entertainment)
Used for control or was controlled by
government and/or public safety
Even today, some media changes are slower in
certain regimes and cultures!
figure from
2020: Impact
of economic
wealth of
countries and
access to
on internet.
Yes, media
access is
impacted by
policy still
Print Media
• Libraries held books, the sacred texts that were hand-written to store
information – the first flash drive!
• Authorship process was revolutionized by printing press.
• Originally, books only circulated to those who needed to know info.
• Once it was economical, books could be printed multiple times, shared by many,
and printers could be a profession.
• Considerations for copyright, authorship, and freedom of press arose from this
ability to copy books.
Pamphlets to Papers
• Initially contained information about
commerce; targeted professionals
• Allowed for public access to information
instead of needing word-of-mouth connection
• Reflects the news of interest to its current
readers, making papers vulnerable to popular
• Forced publishers to determine freedom of
press and how much separation from
government influence
Other sharable
print media
• Song sheets
• Posters
• Poems
• Comics
• Maps
• Periodicals
• Special-interest magazines
Film: end of 19th century
• Nearly immediate, massive popularity
• Allowed for leisure time in an affordable, sharable way
• Helped share music, drama, humor, and news
• Three categories (with some overlap)
Propaganda film
Social documentary
Art film
Film >

Do YOU go to the movie theater?
• Increasingly, no, we don’t.
• Film went from public to
Private use via:
❑ Personal use DVD own/rent
❑ Cable
❑ Subscription services
• TV and Radio are in this category
• Only certain channels open at first, highly
regulated by government
• Initially, everything was live! No recording.
• Acted as a window to the world but could be in
the living room
• Radio is cheap, flexible, and diverse, more than
• Most massive impact in terms of reach, time
spent, and popularity globally
Old Media vs. New Media
• What’s left to mention?
• Music, DVDs, CDs – content is not easy to regulate, and impact is difficult to measure and
• Private media-making abilities are ever-present (printers, cameras, phones, selfpublishing).
• Traditional mass media (all described previously) are one-directional, meaning publisher
direct to reader/consumer, and no feedback.
• New media (term in use since 1960s) is interactive, meaning audience has ability to
provide feedback almost immediately.
The Internet
• Global reach
• Accessible
• Relatively low cost
• Hard to regulate
• Gamechangers
But is it mass media?? Or simply a medium with which to share film, music, ideas…
Running header: SCHOLARLY EXAMPLE ©Voynich2021
Scholarly Example with APA Formatting
Melissa Voynich
My University
Prepared for Dr. Voynich
October 32, 2020
Scholarly Example
Scholarly Example with APA Formatting
Typically, the introduction is 5-7 sentences, but it is so important – it is the first
impression of your paper. You will grab attention, establish your credibility, reveal your paper
topic, establish relevance to the class and reader (why are we interested in reading?), and provide
a thesis. Here is a sample thesis that reveals my topic and the three main points found in the body
of the paper: In this article review, I address observations about the author’s credentials,
confusing gender vocabulary, and important revelations for my understanding of diversity.
The body of a paper usually provides very little in the way of direct summary and quotes.
Your job is to interpret information rather than recite it.
The body of a paper usually has three to five points, as identified in your thesis. The
paragraphs are formatted as 1) your point stated in your own words 2) evidence from articles to
support all opinions 3) elaboration on the sources provided in your words.
Some things to review in scholarly articles:

Credentials of the author and quoted persons

Vocabulary that is important OR was confusing for you (hint: Google the terms)

Support available for the area of research (Is there a lot? none? Is it recent?)

Any obvious bias or opinion that you feel is not supported enough

What of the research is new to you OR confirms about what you know and/or
makes you question what you know (check the discussion sections!)
Below is an example body paragraph about impact parenting, where you can see that I do
not state any opinion without the support of scholarly materials. Also, no direct quotes:
Scholarly Example
First, one needs to identify and quantify the impact of parenting. Much research has
focused on the struggle of public education systems to equalize learning for disadvantaged youth
populations (Swail, 2000; Rosenzweig, 2001). Billions of dollars in federal money are intended
to benefit students in disadvantaged familial circumstances (Githens et al., 2014).
Parental/guardian guidance has been identified as important to student success, as these
influential figures can model educational persistence – or lack of it – for young students
(Rosenzweig, 2001; Garrity et al., 2010; Giani, 2015; Morris-Paxton et al., 2018). Parental
involvement is a primary data point affecting socioeconomic status, and, notably, has a
predictable relationship in a student’s drive to succeed in higher educational endeavors
(Rosenzweig, 2001; Giani, 2015).
o Do you have significant, important, new findings for the reader? Does this
reflection impact readers for the good or bad?
o How would you improve in the future? How do you see this new knowledge
incorporated into our life?
Sample conclusion content:
In closing, conditions for educational equality were addressed through factors of
parental involvement, rural location, and use of technology in the classroom. Further research
to identify different parental factors should be explored, especially as the data report vastly
different homelife trends influenced by recent recessions and the pandemic. Related to
developing data on communities, further exploration is needed in rural areas. Potential effects
could be identified to address educational policy, especially as students might experience
educational disadvantage due to parental, racial, or other socioeconomic demographics.
Scholarly Example
References (sample APA style – note indents, margins, and italics)
Githens, R., Sauer, T., Crawford, F., Cumberland, D., Wilson., K. (2014). Online workforce
development in communication colleges: Connection with community, institutional, and
governance factors. Community College Review, 42(41), 283 – 306.
If your professor requests a word count, the reference page is not included in the word count.

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