Density & Salinity Laboratory Protocol

Supplemental Materials

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UCSD Measure Density of Seawater From Scripps Pier Using Four Different Methods Lab

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Background on Ocean Salinity (.pdf)- good resource for your lab report discussionPhysical and Thermodynamic Data (.pdf)- more good background

download(.pdf)Unesco Equation Spreadsheet (.xlsx)- Useful for processing salinometer data.Millero Density Spreadsheet (.xlsx)- Useful for calculating salinity from density and temperature data.- BOD bottle or density meter experiments. False

(a)

lb)

False

(c)

True

(d)

False

let

True

eg

,

True

Lh)

False

For

ey

.

r

t

–

.

.

Can

.

the

This

is

f14

units

–

–

concentration

concentration

city -1

constant

,

Reaction

units

CHZCHO

.

Rate

.

(g)

.

has

r

,

order

–

has

K

,

Ifl False

2

zero

,

is

co

a

KEHGYJ-LT.pt]

[ Hg ]

”

–

.

”

time

”

time

”

temperature and pressure

I

.

catalyst / Intermediate

elementary

Reaction

A + 2B

trimolecular Reaction

REA) [ BIZ

is

.

–

–

CHO ]

of

function

a’ dI¥= fd.LI#=-ddEdeI

be

over

f- K Eats

,

‘

right

.

→

products

.

(a)

True

(b)

True

Bimolecular

,

For

.

False

a)

Arrhenius

.

False

reaction

Arrhenius

X

.

reaction

composite

homogenous

b)

Reaction

–

KEAJEB ]

don’t

we

,

.

know

the

rate law

w/o experiment

Equation holds well for nearly all elementary

and

for most composite reaction

reached

equation by making an argument

the dependence of rate constant on

temperature would probably show

resemblance

with temperature

dependence of equilibrium constant

.

to

.

A

plot

This

of begiok

enables

False

.

Ea

The

‘

us

and

unit

.

IT

A

of

is

to

A

straight

found

a

be

are

line

slope

with

.

same

as

those

of

R

and

intercept

.

(a)

PINKOS)

Ideal

0.25 atm

–

–

gas

law

Pv

:

#

V

.

n

–

–

RT

dms

5

–

p

,

t=

,

IS

CRT

–

–

0%5,4×4%435

mollnis-lo.mx/o-3mol.i f=R-LN2O5)–

c-

–

=

I

=

y

pinkos ]

–

–

d -44205 ]

=

de

“)

–

[ Naos ]

=

–

C

–

V

N [ N2O5 ]

–

I dE”dE

3.54×10-7 moi

1.77×10-7

–

.

I

=

L

( mot

=

1.77×10-7×5

=

8.85×10-1

=

mot

E! S

–

–

h

.

NA

=

=

–

S

–

‘

( mot

mot

E

)

)

( mot )

mot

8.85×107×6.02×1023

5.328×10

”

E! 5

‘

molest

‘

–

–

I

l

( mot

E

–

-77×107

t

3.54×10-1×0.5

=

=

n

1.77×10-7

1.77×10-7×5=8.84×10-7

T=rV=

(b)

-73×10 -5×10.22×10-3

molecule

–

Lt

.

5

‘

)

(d)

111205

RENDS ]

F-

while

→

=

–

214024¥02

lad”dI

214205

in

–

zd4d’

‘

✓

‘

J

,

k

dn4

dt

dNNz05 )

–

d.LY#-7.-j=-dncN-Os

–

ta

-3217102-12102

‘

dt

=2r=

1.77×10-7×2

2J

8.84×10-7×2

=

–

taek

F-

NzO5

r=

=

411102-102

→

‘

re

g-

=

unchanged

is

-7×10

Mol

‘

I S

–

Mol

.

8-1

depends

(

.

–

I

=3 133

–

on

.

mot

1.768×10

=

T and

‘

Half

life

–

First

,

–

order

P)

Reaction

-42=42!

KA

=

tyz

(b)

A

=

–

K

U2

2×1-73×10 -5–3.46×10-55

=

In

=

L

=

3.46×10-551

RA

20028

‘

s

o.co/mol.dm-3,t=24h=864oosEN2Os-J-)

ENDS]o=

[ Naos

–

–

.

e

RA ‘t

–

[ MOST

=

=

o.co/1mo1.dm-3)

2.87×10-3

–

mot

3-

46×10-5×86400

e

.

I

E S

‘

P

”

–

‘

mot 5

–

16.16

( as

>

‘

–

For

Second

–

order Reaction

DEET

r=kEA5= I

–

[¥ ¥

=

–

Ha

–

,

Half life

‘

–

tyz

know

We

kA=

=

[

-412

EAT

n

,

–

[A)

,

EAT

KENO ]

.

we

Fz

–

L

–

→

[ FI

can

.

=

ka

It

–

t

EATO

(

5×103 mol.li’

=

0.67×10-7

)

mot !

5×103

1661.13

4h01

t

mot

hlfz)

,

–

–

e-

3.33×10-3

[ Fs ]=

,

L

f- v.v

apply

,

the

=

–

2h01

mot L

;

¥:

=

–

case

.

–

–

S

( mot

f- 600L

”

Edna”Io4=dNF4

dt

simple

–

L

I

2111027

;

EB=bz=I

50 min

,

IT 0.67×10-7×100×60115×103

( Nor)=

6.67×10-3mot

21402T

,

t

=

( TRA ‘t EA]o

-1=155

Here

–

.

=

r=

ka ak

,

! -42=5×13×50×-605

(A) 0

[ NO , ]

Products

‘

[ AI ,oo=

(a)

–

→

Atoka

and

CATO

2A

.

kbt

I

–

.

L

‘

)

12=38

L moi’s

”

–

t

,

T.gxio-s.la

=

=

EBT

=

Iss

–

,

[A ]

–

–

.

Rb

I

–

–

,

[Af

6.67×10-3

=

mot L

‘

‘

.

15×38

[ NOD

ETAT

=

=

l

–

388×10-3 mot

CFD

=

6.94×10-4

.

E

‘

‘

mot I

–

(b)

after

Rate

f

=

ios

:

K [ NOT Efz ]

=

=

Initial

f-

38×1.388×10 -3×6.94×10-4 (

3.66×10-5

mot

‘

–

L

‘

5

–

moi

.

Lts

–

‘

)

‘

rate :

KENO DEFT

=

=

38×6.67×10 -3×3.33×10-3

8.44×10-4

mot Lt S

–

.

–

I

( mot 51.5 )

‘

.

(a)

dpd

=

This

is

Here

①

2

Palo

will

The

reaction

⑦

Run 4

time

–

try

.

Hz

.

The

K Bitz

–

Half life

–

–

–

Compared

,

is

k

Rum 4

.

with

=

¥

1hL

excess

in

be

can

Pino

tYz=

Run

tyz

19.2

=

K

Reaction

r

tyz

=

,

.

[A]

3

Run

.

!

.

Pitz

.

with

(

⇐

order

puny

3=276 Is

.

,

K= R

doesn’t

–

Papo

change)

PHL

to

Reaction

K

,

.

to

Half life

approximated

CATO

H2

Reaction)

Byo

.

Second

(

D

compared

order

( First

simplify

to

approximated

be

can

.

Palo

.

constant

a

-2k Bio Pitz

approximations

excess

in

is

=

Reaction

some

relatively

f

Half

use

No

.

is

date

Pitz

trimolecular

a

we

Run

R Pri

–

=3 CATO

.

Runs

K

–

,

–

KPH )

.

For

(b)

t

K

fgh }

–

–

land

Run

2

K Pitz

–

K

.

0.036,5

=

‘

,

Pmo

‘

,

ka

–

Bto

–

600 (

=

.

RA

1×10-7

=

A

r

df#

=

=

(a)

(

b)

( C)

(d)

KEAT -435

–

dta#=

2B

t

ar

–

–

r

REATEBT

dd”#

=

dI#

DIII!

dta

=

=

–

–

DEF ]

DI

‘

–

–

,

=

;

,

R

,

k -433

,

EB ]

=

kg EB)

–

–

br

–

;

mmHg

19.2

)

trimolecular

Reaction

fdthI-t-dd.LI

=

zr

–

df#=cr=3r

:

BKEAIEBJ?

ZKEAIEBJ

=

tyz=t÷=

‘

,

–

dd

=

=

i

CREATE B]

‘

3k EAT -435

REB)

daE#

;

TREE]

–

–

dtd#

HEB] -1k ICE ]

=

–

dt¥=

;

‘

R -437

–

ta df#

ddY#

5

.

3C

→

–

;

AREA ] -435

–

–

=

=

Hgf

( mm

,

DIII

Rs [ B)

k-3 EFT

REB ]

=

–

t

–

KCET ;

REB] Kitts

–

k-347

–

jdd#

dt#

RZIEI

=

=

i

ki EB ]

1-

RILE]

df

–

k

–

=

i

REET

LET

16.61

Ti

.

660k

=

¥

–

.

–

e

16.68

two

.

=

Ea

RT

–

–

DIII

‘

Ai

–

–

–

e

+

La-LA ]

RT

=

=

}

dm

0176

.

Es

KEAT

=

o

mechanisms

.

–

ki

=

c

dEd#

–

0%8

competing

A

✓

=

EFT

ka

–

D

–

–

Ea

and

k,

III

–

=

k

Ea

=

.

,

.

#

c

Kz

K2

into

–

moi

–

‘

s

EAT

RT

=

EET

Eff

(

Equation

–

A. e

.

.

Ea

,

I

–

ki

t

.it/4cT)Ea.zKiLTItkzlT

kilt ) Ea

)

.

toes

i

–

I

K= Kit ka

;

–

”

Ik

C

.

da¥tda÷

;

,

plug

720k

c

( KitKat

Ase

Tz

.

dtnldktk”

‘

I :L:7Thm¥

,

0.068

=

Kz

”

–

–

e

–

J/moI

–

Earth it

–

.

Ea 177 kJ/md= 177×1000

.

EET

Ea

.

.

t

Eff

z.kz )

.

–

–

A

.

–

e

TT )

,

At B F

4)

step

[c) EDT

”

KII

–

–

.

I

244

,

fitting

–

–

t

4.35

is

,

–

e

–

¥÷5/µ

–

.e

,

Effi

–

–

.

I

2×96

–

kJ/mol

Ink

equation

intercept

Hi

EI÷tzEa¥ z⇐r ,

2Ea

–

=

The

–

e

–

Ea .2t2Ea

slope

40

–

Aza;AI

The

N

–

Az e

196+2×120

From

Ecj

Kz

–

”

.

=

TF 298.15 K

( v. d. s )

Gt H

r=ki E:3?

‘

=

Use

In

f

‘

‘s

Ea =

(a)

I :3

K2

2C →

equilibrium )

in

,

–

–

k=

(

K I

–

k=

K)

D

ki

=

[A) EB]

co

+

fast

is

1

C

IHA

–

–

Te 293.45K

result

1-3=290

.

Ink

plot

,

.

45K

vs

.

YT

1-4=287.15

K

.

”

-6480 K

is

ERT

–

26.92

,

–

.

1nA

–

–

¥=

26.92

–

6480

,

,

Ea

5.38/4×104%01

–

–

1-4=287

.

15k

14=77

14×77=590 ‘t

,

while

141=57.2 OF

(a)

The

–

ta dEdA#

From

KEA ]

=

dh

‘

From

a-

ideal

Pa

Substiting

get

we

–

–

eg

.

hft

–

–

”

–

RT

into

dt

=

=

PAV

eg

”

MART

–

–

–

( CA )

”

)

[ HIRT

Iii )

,

Kp ( CAIR’ll

Kp

( RT )

)

,

PA

RT

I dd

=

question

lit

(

Ciii )

DEAD

this

in

Equation

ta a¥( [ AT RT )

Ia

Ci )

HRT

=

product

s

–

kppan

=

gas

PV

AA

”

relationship

the

–

for

law

rate

RT )

Kp CA)

”

”

”

Liii )

From

–

eq

”

lil

at dta#

KEAT

”

K

(b)

for

=

order

n

”

( RT )

( RT )

=

K

h

–

“”

–

–

–

reaction

I

,

Kp

–

–

lil

1.

”

Kp IA ]

Kp

( RT )

relationship

This

nth

=

know

we

KEAT

=

Kp

=)

,

.

K

.

‘

–

is

n

valid

for

any

(a)

At B

2C

→

2

,

2A

and

I

ZA t

2B

2C

Ft B

t

Reaction

i

I

2C

→

F

→

2A

313

of

G

step

Cc )

a

,

b

.

C

.

→

ZA -1213 -12C + Ft B

overall

lb )

numbers

stoichiometric

are

F

→

Ft B

la )

D

Ct

→

TZD

-1

G

→ 2C -121)

→

213+9

TF

t 2A

tf

(b)

catalyst

speeds

–

Intermediate

does

I

.

A

→

B

→

the

overall

Formed

–

and

mechanism

step

in

appear

not

in

consumed

not

appear

one

in

in

catalyst

Reactant

[ →

Intermediate

D

Product

→

f-

G

→

s

–

but

the reaction

up

Intermediate

product

chemical

step

a

the

does

Eq

of

h

.

a

subsequent

overall

Reaction’

(a)

False

(b)

False

(c)

True

First

(a)

r

KEA ]

–

EAT

[ A)

when

Reaction

order

=

(

=

t

–

–

[ A)

I

Iad

dt

EAT oe

-_

–

–

KAT

3255

Rae ka

,

X% ) EAT

–

.

X

.

–

complete

21=35

,

[ Abe

=

:

RA ‘t

–

④

(

I

–

KA

a -2

RA

,

for

lb)

2K

–

–

70%

[A ]

[A)

f.

=

=

=

R

o

–

RA

–

325

0,0013351

.

[ A)

=

e

o

–

–

o

complete

e

–

.

0006635

‘

.

KA T

KAI

–

,

In 10.3 )

=

905

RA

S

o.IE/t3o-=hhl0.l

90%

,

complete

)

–

ka

EAT

,

=

‘-

17315

‘

0.001335

0.3 CATO

–

For

[ A)

35%1 [ A ]o=

.

(

(a)

First

–

order

Reaction )

–

r

–

–

–

Idgaf

‘

KEAT

=

–

–

dta#

=

–

–

‘

KATHI

–

l

l

EA )

A

daft

concentration

–

activity

–

=

–

dal

N

A

–

–

AN

=

I

. .

.

f!!

,

Inc

#o e

I

=

–

d

I

=

–

it

,

–

Adt

at

Ho

–

At

=

d No

–

–

e

do

=dNo

(t

It

A-

=

=

Ito

Ao

–

e

,

–

.

e

t

–

–

e

,

–

–

/

dm

–

# dat foot

–

No

=

at

at

–

–

)

o

(b)

226

Rd

222

→

IS

No

Ao

Ra

=

–

–

Na

.

glmol

226

3.7×10

”

s

‘

‘

=

Mo

=

D= 1.39×10

t

–

d -42=0.693

”

s

–

4Hez

2.66×1021

,

D=

,

I

tyz=

,

9%32×10

I

-1=999 years

A

=

=

=

Ao

.

e

NIT

1600

”

s

years

3.15×10105

=

it

3.7×1010

2.4×10

”

–

.

e

s

–

I

( 1. 39×10

–

”

x

3.15×10

”

)

(c)

Kd

log

Not Kol )

.

I

=

A-

=

=

=

=

2×108

Ao

e

16.2

-72×10

yr

–

=

–

o

x

-72×10

16.2 S

=

f

I

=

AN

game ,

8.08×1022

=

NA

–

>4

D=

A

!

=

”

Nol Kol )

.

–

–

”

‘

.

ooh

75

X

=

) %

8.08×10

=

5

I

6-31×10155

ht

–

–

14.65

e

‘

172×10

–

‘

( K+ )

9.45×10174 40kt,

‘

9.45×1017

”

7×6.31×1015

‘

111204

①

21402

elementary

The

OCT

=

.

K

Appendix

kpo

ki

Kpo

–

–

ki

ki

–

Forward

o

.

0831

8.3141

–

0.148

(

I bar

2)

.

,

order

–

1k¥

–

mot

equilibrium

?

( bar dm moi

–

.

=

‘

Reaction ;

In

.

Kp

)

constant

on -_ 2’

–

K

‘

I

I

5.97×10-3

=

.

constant

,

oh

KI 2981k)

–

din

.

on

RT )

Kb

First

-4mg

equilibrium

KPYCRT ,

=

1¥

–

Ki

=

–

,

concentration

–

R

=

pressure

–

( b

.

09%8=4730 Hmo ,

,

4730151mg )

Kpo

Reaction

‘

F- 298.15K

.

=

phase

–

Rflnkpo

–

12=8.314%01

From

gas

kf= 4.8×1045

;

8×10615

Backward

-3

( mot dm

–

‘

–

mot i.

–

.

)

‘s

dm )

Second order

(a)

203

,

dEdO#

( b)

ddE#

k [ OSTEND

ki

=

K , [ OSTEND

[ 037

K,

DION

dt

“)

t

f-

(d)

r

–

–

=

3

–

–

Kz

END

KLEOJEOD

TO ] [ Os ]

–

–

is

I

[ 02 ][ 03 END t 21420 ] [ Os )

[023-10] END

I

[ 023203 END

i

K

,

–

I

–

–

Kr -Lo3[ Oz]

[ 023 [ OIEN’D

dtd¥=

I

–

=

(

=D

intermediate)

K2 [ 05h02 ]

,

2122203 [ 033

–

[ 0] ( K

Kz [ 03 [ Os)

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Density and salinity measurement

Fun Fact

The Dead Sea is roughly 8.6 times saltier

than the ocean (33.7% salinity). This

salinity makes for a harsh environment in

which animals cannot flourish (hence its

name). The high salinity prevents

macroscopic aquatic organisms such as

fish and aquatic plants from living in it,

though minuscule quantities of bacteria

and microbial fungi are present.

Overview

• Background on Salinity

Conserved Elements

Relation to Physical Properties of Seawater

• Density by Volume (BOD Bottles)

• Salinity by Density Meter (Millero Equation)

• Salinity by Conductivity Probe

• Salinity by Refractive Index (Refractometer)

Salinity of Seawater

:KDWLVVDOLQLW\:

• Salinity is a measure of the total dissolved salts in solution

• The average salt content in the ocean is 35 g per kilogram

of seawater (parts per thousand; ppt)

• Six primary constituents (conservative elements)

It is highly impractical and

problematic to evaporate

seawater in order to make

an accurate salinity

measurement!

For many years, chlorinity

titrations were the

standard procedure for

salinity determination.

Relating conductivity to salinity

In 1978, the “Practical Salinity Scale” (PSS)

was defined based exclusively on

measurement of the conductivity ratio

between a sample and a standard solution.

Waters with the same conductivity ratio have

the same Practical Salinity, regardless of the

composition.

Chemical processes in the ocean lead to small

errors between Absolute Salinity (g/kg) and

Practical Salinity (a unitless quantity).

Millero, F. (1993), Oceanography, 6(3), 67.

In the density lab you will use two rather

complex equations (spreadsheets provided) to

convert between Practial Salinity and density:

The PSS-78 equation allows conversion

between conductivity and Practial Salinity.

The EOS-80 equation converts between

density and Practial Salinity.

In this course we will not distinguish between Absolute and Practial Salinity, other than

to point out that there are some subtle differences that you would care about only if you

were a physical oceanographer. If you are interested in further reading on this subject,

visit http://www.teos-10.org/

Converts conductivity ratio to Practical

Saliniy – This calculation is provided in a

spreadsheet found on 6DOLQLW\5ODQG’HQVLW\.exl”

You only need this portion because Rp = rT = 1 under your

experimental conditions.

Physical Properties of Seawater

Physical Properties are “State Functions”

f = c – p + 2 (Gibbs phase rule)

f = independent intensive variables required to specify the state of the

system

c = number of different chemical species

p = number of phases

• Temperature

• Pressure

• Composition

If we treat seawater like a 2-component

mixture (water + sea salt), then f = 3.

The most common use of a State Function in

oceanography is the practice of calculating

density as a function of temperature,

pressure and salinity.

other examples

• Density

• Energy

• Electrical conductivity/resistivity

• Sound speed

• Refractive index

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_function

Physical Properties of Seawater

Increase with increasing salinity Decrease with increasing salinity

• Density

• Refractive index

• Freezing point

~ -1.8 °C seawater freezing point

• Electrical conductivity

• Temperature of maximum

density

• Transmission speed of

sound

• Compressibility

• Surface tension

• Solubility of non-reacting

gases

• Specific heat

Physical

Salinity

Properties

of Seawater

of Seawater

Increase with increasing salinity Decrease with increasing salinity

• Density

• Refractive index

• Electrical conductivity

• Freezing point

~ -1.8 °C seawater freezing point

• Temperature of maximum

density

Of these physical properties, oceanographers are typically

• Transmission speed of

• seawater.

Compressibility

most

interested

in

the

density

of

Why don’t they

sound

simply measure the density of seawater

directly?

• Solubility

of non-reacting

• Surface tension

gases

• Specific heat

Physical Properties of Seawater

An equation of state describes the state of matter under a given set of

physical conditions. This idea applies to all fluids, gases, solids, not just

seawater!

For seawater, EOS-80 provides

density from salinity, temperature,

pressure

ρ=f(S,T,P)

Also, thermal expansion,

compressibility, specific heat,

adibatic lapse rate, potential

temperature, sound speed.

For simplicity, the newer

Thermodynamic Equation of

Seawater (http://www.teos-10.org/) will

not be used in this course.

Measures of Salinity

• Chlorinity (Fajan’s Method)

– A measure of the content of chloride, bromide, and iodide ions in

seawater

– We derive salinity from the chlorinity:=

Sunk 1.80655 × Cl−

unk

• Density by Volume

• Density Meter

• Conductivity

– Seawater has a conductivity similar to that of KCl at 15°C and 1 atm

containing a mass of 32.4356 g of KCl per kilogram of solution

– Various ions in solution contribute to the total conductivity reading,

that is, the total concentration of ionic species in the sample, which is

expressed in total dissolved solids (TDS)

– TDS value is relative to a calibration standard (usually KCl)

• Refractometer

– A compact optical device that determines the salinity of a water

sample by comparing the refractive index of the sample to the

refractive index of a refraction prism

Measures of Salinity

Density by Volume

Laboratory Protocol

• The density of seawater will be

determined using the BOD bottles

and the knowledge of the density

of DI water

• First, you will weigh the dry, empty

BOD bottle with the top

B.O.D bottles have a

specially designed

shoulder radius that

sweeps all air from inside

the bottle during filling

• Then you will overfill the BOD

bottle with DI water, put on the top,

wipe the bottle dry, and weigh it

again

Why “overfill” the bottle

How can you determine the

volume of the BOD bottle

Measures of Salinity

Density by Volume

Laboratory Protocol

• Next you will overfill the same

bottle with seawater, put on the

top, wipe the bottle dry, and weigh

it again

How can you determine the

density of seawater

B.O.D bottles have a

specially designed

shoulder radius that

sweeps all air from inside

the bottle during filling

Density Meter

A & B are instrument calibration coefficients

Relating salinity and density

Millero, F.J.; Poisson, A. International one-atmosphere equation of state of seawater.

Deep-Sea Research, 28, 625, 1981.

The spreadsheet on TED contains a reduced

version of the Equation of State calculations.

It calculates density from salinity &

temperature.

TED: Content Salinity Laboratory Supplement – Millero Equation Spreadsheet

Relating

Measures

salinity

of and

Salinity

density

Salinity can be found by “inverting” the EOS usng “Guess and Check”: enter the temperature,

and then modify the salinity until you match the density measured with the meter. (Note that the

Gibbs seawater toolbox for Matlab contains an explicit function for this calculation).

Measures of Salinity

Conductivity

Typical conditions: AC ~500-5000

Hz, Cell resistance ~1kΩ

Why is it necessary to use AC

rather than DC in measurement of

electrolytic conductivity?

•

Electricity is a flow of elections, thus charged

particles (ions) will conduct electricity due to

their mobility in solution.

•

Conductivity is the ability of a solution to pass

current. More concentrated solutions have a

higher conductivity.

•

The amount of current flowing is proportional

to the number of ions present in the

conducting solution.

•

Conductivity is an intensive property of the

solution and depends on S, T, P. Sensors

measure conductance and then calculate

conductivity from the cell constant, which was

previously determined during a calibration

using a solution of known conductivity

(typically KCl or a seawater standard).

Instrumentation for conductivity measurement

Benchtop salinometer

Benchtop probe (used in this class)

Sea-Bird Electronics

In situ sensors

Measures of Salinity

Refractometer

Bausch & Lomb Abbe-3L refractometer

•

Measures the extent to which light is bent

(refraction) when moving from one

medium (i.e air) into another (i.e seawater)

•

Illuminating prism: Used to pass light from

the source through the sample and into the

refracting prism

•

Refracting prism (or measuring prism):

Glass of high refractive index (~ 1.75),

used to measure the refractive index of the

sample

Measures of Salinity

Refractometer

Snell’s Law

•

Liquid sample sandwiched into a thin

layer between an illuminating prism

and a refracting prism

•

Light is projected through the

illuminating prism and through the

sample

•

Light from point A to point B will have

the largest angle of incidence (θi) and

the largest angle of refraction (θr)

•

All other light entering the refraction

prism will have a smaller θr and lie to

the left of point C

•

A detector placed on the backside of

the refraction prism would show a light

region and a dark region

•

The borderline between the between

the light and dark is used to determine

the angle of refraction θr and thus the

refractive index (n) of the sample (in

a vacuum n = 1 for the speed of light)

Measures of Salinity

Refractometer

Q.

Calculate the refractive

index of the transparent

block given an incident

angle of 15o

(see picture to right).

Click Here for

YouTube Video

(0:45/2:56)

Snell’s

Law

Measures of Salinity

Refractive Index as it Relates to Salinity

Salinity vs Refractive Index

40

Salinity

38

36

34

y = 5585.5x – 7446.2

32

R2 = 1

30

1.33800

1.33850

1.33900

1.33950

1.34000

1.34050

Refractive Index

TED: Content Salinity Laboratory Supplement – Salinity vs RI and Salinity vs SG Curves

Measures of Salinity

Laboratory Questions to Consider

Which analysis method provided

the most accurate and/or precise

value for salinity and why?

100A First Lab Assignment (5% of your grade)

Density and Salinity

Density meter: Watch the video to see how the density meter is used and assess jhow

long it would take to do the analysis. Put the data into a table form in an Excel

spreadsheet. Remember to title the table and include the units and significant figures.

Given the density convert to salinity using the Millero Equation spreadsheet (found in

Density Salinity Experimental Details) using the check and see method. Remember to

report the temperature. For advanced users you can also use the solver function. What is

the uncertainty? (Based on Sig Figs from instrument)

Bottle Density: Watch the video and note the time to use the two-balance technique to

determine the density of seawater. DI Water and the density table create the volume

standardization. Remember that the bottle has t start clean and dry. Think about this in

the comparison section below. Given the density convert to salinity using the Millero

Equation spreadsheet using the check and see method. Create a table of sea water density

and salinity based on the BOD bottles. (found in Density Salinity Experimental

Details)Report the temperature. Pay attention to the Table format and the significant

figures. What is the uncertainty? (Error Propagation)

Conductivity: Watch the video and keep track of the timing. This exercise also uses a

Reference Material. A sample of known chlorinity which can be converted to salinity.

Given the salinity convert to the density using the Millero Equation spreadsheet using the

check and see method. Create a table of sea water density and salinity based on the

conductivity. (found in Density Salinity Experimental Details)Report the temperature.

Pay attention to the Table format and the significant figures. What is the uncertainty?

(Error Propagation)

Refractive Index: Watch the video and keep track of the timing. This exercise also uses a

Reference Material, the known index of refraction of water. This allows you the ability

to check your proper usage of the refractometer. Given the density or salinity, find the

other using the Millero Equation spreadsheet using the check and see method. Create a

table of sea water density and salinity based on the refractive index. (found in Density

Salinity Experimental Details)Report the temperature. Pay attention to the Table format

and the significant figures. What is the uncertainty? (Error Propagation)

To be submitted, representing 5% of your grade

Create an electronic notebook following the guideline materials available on line and also

reflected in the video.

You will be graded on three aspects

I (1%) The quality of your electronic notebook submission

II (2%) The formatting and documentation of your spreadsheet. Labels, units, sig figs

and the proper computation of the averages and the uncertainties.

III (2%) Compare the techniques for determining the density and salinity. Compare them

with respect to:

Precision

Speed

Cost

Skill of the operator

Can you envision scenarios where each technique would be the right choice under the

circumstances? The choice of analytical techniques and equipment is built around the required

precision, # of samples to be analyzed, the time per analysis, the cost of the analysis and the skill

(pay) of the operator.

Determination of the density of seawater—notes on procedures and write-up

Goal:

The aim of this lab is to measure the density of seawater from the Scripps pier using 4 different methods.

The uncertainties in each method are assessed using standard methods in error analysis.

Materials:

BOD bottles (qty 1)

Top-loading balance

Density meter

Refractometer

Conductivity Meter

Preparation for this lab:

1. Review all lecture slides related to this lab, particularly those related to BOD bottles and the operation

of a density meter and refractometer.

2. Be aware of all content that is uploaded on the TritonEd website related to this lab. Instrument manuals

and spreadsheets are some of the important content.

3. Read this document. Before lab you are expected to jot down a few notes about the procedures in your

lab notebook. Brief notes are sufficient.

Procedures:

Density by volume and mass, using a BOD bottle

1. Note that the BOD bottles and stoppers are numbered. You and your partner will each work with your

own bottle. Record the number, and make sure not to swap bottles/stoppers during the experiment.

2. Check that the bottles and stoppers are clean and dry; then weigh each empty bottle with its stopper on

the top-loading balance. Make sure to record as many significant figures as possible.

3. Use distilled water to quantify the volume of each bottle. The BOD bottle is first overfilled. Slow

transfer of the liquid into the bottle minimizes turbulence and entrapped bubbles. Stopper the bottle.

Excess liquid should be removed by blotting the neck with Kimwipes and drying the bottle with your blue

towel. Check carefully for any bubbles and wetness on the exterior of the bottle. Weigh the bottle with the

DI water. Measure and record the temperature of the DI water after weighing. Pour out the DI water in

preparation for the next step.

4. Repeat step (3) so that you have a minimum of three separate measurements of the bottle with DI

water.

5. Rinse the bottle several times with small quantities of seawater. Follow steps as described above in (3),

but now with seawater rather than distilled water. Repeat this measurement so that you have a minimum

of three separate measurements of the BOD bottle with seawater.

6. Rinse each BOD bottle with several aliquots of distilled water after the seawater. Leave the bottles out

on the countertop to dry. The bottles will be re-weighed in the next lab period for comparison with the

weight found in step (2).

7. Determine the volume of the BOD bottle from data recorded in steps (2), (3),(4),and (6) along with the

known density of distilled water. Report the uncertainty in the volume, taking into account any

uncertainties in the mass of the empty bottle+stopper, or the mass of bottle+stopper+ DI water.

8. With the known volume of the BOD bottle, and the seawater masses measured in step (5), determine

the density of seawater. Be sure to take into account any uncertainty in the measurement of the seawater

mass or the volume of the BOD bottle.

Using the Millero Equation spreadsheet available on line, enter the temperature and substitute

values for the salinity until the value of the density matches the value obtained from the meter.

You should have a value for the density and salinity of the seawater sample.

Density by the density meter (frequency of oscillation)

Validate the calibration of the density meter with a DI water value that agrees to within +0.00005 at a

stated temperature. Then acquire three density values for seawater.

1. Read instructions for use of the density meter provided in lab. A PDF version of the quickstart guide is

also included in the folder for the lab.

2. Inject ~1 mL of DI water into the device, scan for bubbles, and run the instrument.

3. Continue re-injecting distilled water samples, and record the density with each injection. You should

make at least three separate measurements. Do not reject any data at this stage unless there is a definite

reason (i.e. visible bubble). Record the temperature setpoint for the density meter.

4. Analyze the data for DI water while you are in lab. You should quickly find the average and estimated

standard deviation for your three (or more) measurements. All data from step (3) must be kept unless a Qtest justifies the removal of a suspect datapoint. If you reject any data, show your thinking as clearly as

possible.

5. Compare the average density found in step (4) with the known density of distilled water at the relevant

temperature. What is the percent difference? A scalar correction factor could be derived from this

comparison. Consider whether it is good practice to apply a scalar correction for other samples. As part of

your thinking, consider the origins of an error.

6. After running the DI water samples, connect the air pump output to the input tubing, and allow air to

run through the U-tube.

7. Now run your seawater sample. As in step (3), you should make at least three separate density

measurements, and you should not reject any data at this stage unless a bubble is observed in the camera

sight. Record the water temperature.

8. Run two syringes of DI water through the device; then run air through it in preparation for the next

team.

9. Analyze the data for the seawater in the same way as described for step (4). At this stage, do not apply

the correction factor derived in step (5).

10. Use the correction factor found in step (5) to adjust the seawater density found in step (9). Again,

you are encouraged to consider whether a scalar correction is a reliable approach, or not. How might you

gain better confidence in such an approach?

Using the Millero Equation spreadsheet available on line, enter the temperature and substitute

values for the salinity until the value of the density matches the value obtained from the meter.

You should have a value for the density and salinity of the seawater sample.

Indirect assessment of density: the refractive index (n).

1. Read posted content on the proper use of a refractometer. A PDF version of the content posted here

http://www2.ups.edu/faculty/hanson/labtechniques/refractometry/smallmovie.htm

is posted in the density folder, as well as a manual for our machine. A printed summary sheet can be

found next to the machine. Caution: Be sure not to touch the prisms with any hard objects, and do not

rub the prism surfaces with tissue or anything else. The surfaces are easily scratched, so a dabbing

motion is preferred to rubbing.

2. Become familiar with the refractometer by first running distilled water samples. Several drops of

liquid are required for each measurement. The team should acquire at least three measurements each ( 3

DI water and 3 SW), to gain a sense of any variability with repeat measurement. Use the same

refractometer for all measurements. Each measurement is recorded with five significant figures. Record

the temperature indicated by the digital thermometer next to the machine.

3. What is the expected index of refraction for distilled water at that temperature, and how does your

number compare with expectation? To consider: what type of ‘correction factor’ could be applied, and do

we know enough to justify such a correction? Or is it better to acknowledge that a systematic error exists,

and expect that unknown samples will be afflicted with similar uncertainty?

4. Next, run your seawater samples. As in step (2), you and your partner should each make at least three

measurements, and record them with five significant figures. Be sure to also record the temperature of

the room/apparatus.

5. TritonEd has information that describes the linear relationship between refractive index and salinity.

Use the Millero equation spreadsheet to relate salinity and density. The latter relationship is not linear, so

you must use correct techniques in error propagation to translate any uncertainty in refractive index, η,

whether determinate or indeterminate, to an uncertainty in the density, ρ.

Indirect assessment of density: Conductivity (Λ).

1. The use of the conductivity probe is similar to the use of a pH probe in that the probe should be

rinsed and patted dry before each measurement. There will also be a short period of time until the

sensor settles down. You are going to measure the conductivity, Λ, of a reference solution of

known salinity and the conductivity of your seawater sample, of unknown salinity. The assumption

is you are able to get a value from a single point calibration based on ratio and proportion at the

recorded temperature. That is

__Λref___

__Λsam___

At a reported Temperature

=

Salinityref

Salinitysam

This single point calibration works so long as the conductivity ratio is close to one. For

conductivity, just report the salinity and compare it to the other methods. The density conversion

using a conductivity ratio is a more difficult, nonlinear computation.

Pointers for a good lab write-up:

•

In your write-up, make sure to briefly mention the principles of operation for each method, to

demonstrate that you have a solid understanding of how each instrument works.

•

The uncertainty of each measurement technique should be analyzed and reported. A clear

understanding of random versus systematic errors is important.

•

Is it justified to make scalar ‘adjustments’ for one method or another, when the density for the

reference DI water is not a perfect match to expectation? How might we know better whether a

scalar (or other) adjustment is justified?

•

Of the three methods, which is ‘best’, and why? Might one method be best in one circumstance,

and not another? You should comment not only on precision, but also on ease of the technique,

the speed, the volume of sample, cost per analysis, the skill of the operator. You may want to

create a table

Make a table of density and salinity measurements and include you estimates for the uncertainty.

Are the values in agreement with one another based on the precision of each method? If not,

what might cause this?

•

Salinity

Density

0

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

SW RI

Salinity

SW Density

Salinity

0,9978

1,0204

1,0212

1,0219

1,0227

1,0235

1,0242

1,0250

1,0257

1,0265

1,0272

Refractive Index

Salinity

1,33300

1,33970

30

1,33993

31

1,34015

32

1,34037

33

1,34060

34

1,34082

35

1,34104

36

1,34127

37

1,34149

38

1,34171

39

1,3414

37,605

Salinity vs Refractiv

40

39

38

37

36

35

34

33

32

31

30

1,33950

1,34000

1,0262

37,605

Slope =

intercept =

1320,8

-1317,8

Salinity vs Density

40

39

38

37

36

35

34

33

32

31

30

1,0200

1,0210

1,0220

Slope

Intercept

alinity vs Refractive Index

1,34000

1,34050

1,34100

y = 4483,9x – 5977

R² = 1

1,34150

y = 1320,8x – 1317,8

R² = 0,9999

linity vs Density

1,0220

1,0230

1,34200

1,0240

1,0250

1,0260

1,0270

1,0280

35

30

25

20

0

Slope

Intercept

35

30

25

20

0

1323,903

-1320,95

1,3408

1,3397

1,3386

1,3375

1,333

4483,86

-5977,05

Last 5 digits of PID

56863

85542

48830

79945

73006

71141

99321

40088

09686

10723

05241

96320

50555

64537

59587

30227

40361

88496

07906

32575

87106

25919

27000

44920

29546

09769

51962

51727

88646

99591

05676

85078

88470

48681

76734

40373

22366

87710

59125

15374

85489

42486

85515

29136

22250

89828

out

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.11 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.99 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.69 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.92 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.28 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.17 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.83 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.06 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.27 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.88 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.86 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.85 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.21 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.12 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.93 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.88 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.24 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.72 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.34 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.42 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.07 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.98 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.17 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.87 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.82 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.08 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.77 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.99 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.27 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.34 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.22 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.62 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.60 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.76 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.12 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.34 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.20 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.33 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.13 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.01 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.96 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.86 g, BOD bottle #2 we

50731

49860

08573

62598

81503

32676

55197

10094

44120

00977

96313

00511

91778

88995

79923

94388

85050

41883

00534

65451

00130

99391

25014

02114

04793

04621

23249

76790

80567

43382

51384

74197

31290

24847

37706

34651

03213

58272

77167

17383

28267

18274

60157

91401

17948

68499

72199

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.02 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.48 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.93 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.55 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.01 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.76 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.31 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.57 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.51 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.28 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.00 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.22 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.37 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.44 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.49 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.73 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.16 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.49 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.45 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.79 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.59 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.28 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.22 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.36 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.13 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.52 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.52 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.78 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.92 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.25 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.25 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.25 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.79 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.77 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.16 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.01 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.33 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.99 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.79 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.31 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.26 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.31 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.40 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.21 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.57 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.93 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.36 g, BOD bottle #2 we

97500

04647

77196

59802

27402

53368

69314

40954

16367

02713

66688

81535

82590

71483

58192

78928

66376

88217

70911

30244

42573

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.88 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.72 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.22 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.45 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.06 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.15 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.13 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.94 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.46 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.81 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.26 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.15 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.21 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.42 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.54 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.35 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.73 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.14 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.23 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.72 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.27 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.95 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.38 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.68 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.78 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.12 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.64 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.69 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.05 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.47 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.20 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.76 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.10 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.65 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.01 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.22 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.96 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.59 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.69 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.18 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.07 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.54 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.31 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.85 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.87 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.79 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.39 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.51 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.05 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.61 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.99 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.75 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.79 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.12 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.17 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.01 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.04 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.28 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.59 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.33 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.30 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.33 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.68 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.41 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.87 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.45 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.76 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.70 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.45 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.40 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.45 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.78 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.60 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.81 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.35 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.37 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.21 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.55 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.59 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.96 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.66 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.56 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.70 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.52 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.69 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.94 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.84 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.86 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.94 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.99 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.06 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.07 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.38 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 247.85 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 245.80 g, BOD bottle #2 we

Your Data is as follows: DENSITY BY BOD BOTTLE: BOD bottle #1 weighs 246.63 g, BOD bottle #2 we

ghs 245.11 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.58 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.58 g.

ghs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.01 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.21 g.

ghs 245.99 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.19 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.18 g.

ghs 247.69 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.75 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.17 g.

ghs 246.92 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.71 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.80 g.

ghs 245.28 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.72 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.37 g.

ghs 245.17 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.19 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.44 g.

ghs 245.83 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.31 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.37 g.

ghs 247.06 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.25 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.55 g.

ghs 246.27 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.53 g.

ghs 245.88 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.48 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.14 g.

ghs 247.86 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.72 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.01 g.

ghs 245.85 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.94 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.03 g.

ghs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.97 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.19 g.

ghs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.50 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.49 g.

ghs 246.21 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.26 g.

ghs 247.12 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.54 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.52 g.

ghs 246.93 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.34 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.51 g.

ghs 247.88 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.48 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.11 g.

ghs 247.24 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.71 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.48 g.

ghs 246.72 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.05 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.37 g.

ghs 245.34 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.86 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.46 g.

ghs 245.42 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.65 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.55 g.

ghs 246.07 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.15 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.42 g.

ghs 245.98 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.82 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.57 g.

ghs 247.17 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.17 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.82 g.

ghs 246.87 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.56 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.74 g.

ghs 247.82 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.84 g.

ghs 246.08 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.74 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.02 g.

ghs 246.77 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.70 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.57 g.

ghs 247.99 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.69 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.82 g.

ghs 245.27 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.84 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.43 g.

ghs 247.34 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.36 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.66 g.

ghs 245.22 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.31 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.79 g.

ghs 245.62 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.39 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.77 g.

ghs 246.60 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.65 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.71 g.

ghs 246.76 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.26 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.13 g.

ghs 247.12 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.16 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.31 g.

ghs 247.34 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.22 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.45 g.

ghs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.55 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.51 g.

ghs 246.20 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.55 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.77 g.

ghs 247.33 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.20 g.

ghs 247.13 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.59 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.83 g.

ghs 247.01 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.42 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.49 g.

ghs 247.96 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.72 g.

ghs 245.86 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.05 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.90 g.

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

ghs 246.02 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.26 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.95 g.

ghs 247.48 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.69 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.65 g.

ghs 245.93 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.87 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.33 g.

ghs 245.55 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.01 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.48 g.

ghs 246.01 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.23 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.28 g.

ghs 247.76 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.45 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.35 g.

ghs 246.31 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.54 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.65 g.

ghs 245.57 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.37 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.24 g.

ghs 246.51 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.56 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.49 g.

ghs 245.28 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.22 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.74 g.

ghs 245.00 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.08 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.66 g.

ghs 247.22 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.73 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.46 g.

ghs 247.37 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.49 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.54 g.

ghs 247.44 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.06 g.

ghs 246.49 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.97 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.43 g.

ghs 246.73 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.77 g.

ghs 247.16 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.87 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.72 g.

ghs 247.49 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.81 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.38 g.

ghs 247.45 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.69 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.43 g.

ghs 246.79 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.61 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.22 g.

ghs 246.59 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.67 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.12 g.

ghs 246.28 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.28 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.93 g.

ghs 246.22 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.36 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.61 g.

ghs 247.36 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.55 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.64 g.

ghs 246.13 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.93 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.62 g.

ghs 247.52 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.22 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.67 g.

ghs 245.52 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.30 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.62 g.

ghs 247.78 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.00 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.10 g.

ghs 245.92 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.08 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.72 g.

ghs 246.25 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.74 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.49 g.

ghs 247.25 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.24 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.46 g.

ghs 245.25 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.26 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.54 g.

ghs 246.79 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.62 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.83 g.

ghs 245.77 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.97 g.

ghs 247.16 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.62 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.10 g.

ghs 245.01 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.61 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.08 g.

ghs 247.33 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.93 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.19 g.

ghs 247.99 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.06 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.90 g.

ghs 245.79 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.39 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.98 g.

ghs 247.31 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.14 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.98 g.

ghs 246.26 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.02 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.07 g.

ghs 247.31 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.41 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.31 g.

ghs 247.40 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.66 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.67 g.

ghs 247.21 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.10 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.76 g.

ghs 247.57 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.06 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.86 g.

ghs 245.93 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.45 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.23 g.

ghs 245.36 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.62 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.38 g.

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

ghs 247.88 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.77 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.03 g.

ghs 247.72 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.48 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.44 g.

ghs 246.22 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.09 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.45 g.

ghs 246.45 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.64 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.35 g.

ghs 247.06 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.17 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.74 g.

ghs 245.15 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.82 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.90 g.

ghs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.10 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.14 g.

ghs 245.13 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.87 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.16 g.

ghs 245.94 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.68 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.73 g.

ghs 245.46 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.49 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.07 g.

ghs 245.81 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.11 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.23 g.

ghs 245.26 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.48 g.

ghs 245.15 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.26 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.51 g.

ghs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.21 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.34 g.

ghs 245.21 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.86 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.88 g.

ghs 245.42 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.08 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.25 g.

ghs 245.54 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.64 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.05 g.

ghs 246.35 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.53 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.00 g.

ghs 245.73 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.05 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.48 g.

ghs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.50 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.02 g.

ghs 246.14 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.35 g.

ghs 245.23 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.61 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.66 g.

ghs 245.72 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.96 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.62 g.

ghs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.73 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.24 g.

ghs 245.27 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.92 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.51 g.

ghs 246.95 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.47 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.71 g.

ghs 246.38 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.78 g.

ghs 247.68 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.61 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.13 g.

ghs 246.78 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.95 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.11 g.

ghs 247.12 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.64 g.

ghs 247.64 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.82 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.50 g.

ghs 247.69 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.53 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.04 g.

ghs 245.05 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.86 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.61 g.

ghs 247.47 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.14 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.05 g.

ghs 245.20 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.76 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.82 g.

ghs 246.76 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.22 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.78 g.

ghs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.11 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.16 g.

ghs 246.10 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.81 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.30 g.

ghs 245.65 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.67 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.66 g.

ghs 247.95 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.49 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.60 g.

ghs 245.01 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.15 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.02 g.

ghs 247.22 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.39 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.01 g.

ghs 245.96 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.80 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.83 g.

ghs 246.59 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.93 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.12 g.

ghs 246.69 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.99 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.81 g.

ghs 245.18 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.55 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.08 g.

ghs 246.07 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.61 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.60 g.

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

ghs 246.54 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.46 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.87 g.

ghs 246.31 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.36 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.17 g.

ghs 247.85 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.42 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.23 g.

ghs 246.87 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.69 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.59 g.

ghs 245.79 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.21 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.13 g.

ghs 245.39 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.24 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.39 g.

ghs 245.51 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.97 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.28 g.

ghs 246.05 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.84 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.41 g.

ghs 246.61 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.66 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.95 g.

ghs 246.99 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.43 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.60 g.

ghs 246.75 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.65 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.71 g.

ghs 246.79 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.64 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.76 g.

ghs 246.12 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.13 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.99 g.

ghs 245.17 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.51 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.85 g.

ghs 246.01 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.68 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.51 g.

ghs 246.04 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.04 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.99 g.

ghs 247.28 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.34 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.25 g.

ghs 245.59 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.72 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.94 g.

ghs 245.33 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.82 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.39 g.

ghs 246.30 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.84 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.40 g.

ghs 246.33 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.16 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.84 g.

ghs 245.68 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.42 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.10 g.

ghs 246.41 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.91 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.86 g.

ghs 247.87 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.12 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.90 g.

ghs 245.45 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.66 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.63 g.

ghs 246.56 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.91 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.37 g.

ghs 245.76 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.00 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.42 g.

ghs 245.70 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.83 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.46 g.

ghs 247.45 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.42 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.60 g.

ghs 247.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.36 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.65 g.

ghs 247.40 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.21 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.81 g.

ghs 247.45 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.85 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.22 g.

ghs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.90 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.64 g.

ghs 245.78 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.79 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.74 g.

ghs 245.60 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.53 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.76 g.

ghs 246.81 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.53 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.57 g.

ghs 247.35 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.45 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.62 g.

ghs 246.37 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.84 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.10 g.

ghs 246.21 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.15 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.54 g.

ghs 247.55 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.01 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.77 g.

ghs 246.59 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.78 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.29 g.

ghs 246.96 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.48 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.63 g.

ghs 245.66 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.16 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.55 g.

ghs 247.56 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.35 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.03 g.

ghs 245.70 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.25 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.74 g.

ghs 246.52 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.16 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.18 g.

ghs 245.69 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.34 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.87 g.

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.6

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

ghs 245.94 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.81 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.69 g.

ghs 247.84 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.29 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.36 g.

ghs 246.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.59 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.78 g.

ghs 245.86 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.53 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.85 g.

ghs 245.94 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 247.30 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.22 g.

ghs 245.99 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.34 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.53 g.

ghs 247.06 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.85 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.64 g.

ghs 247.07 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.27 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.90 g.

ghs 245.38 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.23 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.56 g.

ghs 247.85 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.45 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 245.45 g.

ghs 245.80 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 246.49 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 246.33 g.

ghs 246.63 g, BOD bottle #2 weighs 245.05 g, BOD bottle #3 weighs 247.45 g.

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.7

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.9

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 22.5

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.8

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.1

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.2

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 23.0

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.3

You fill each of these BOD bottles with DI water that is 21.4

bottles with DI water that is 22.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.1°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.1°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 23.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.8°C.

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bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

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bottles with DI water that is 22.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.6°C.

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bottles with DI water that is 22.2°C.

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bottles with DI water that is 21.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.2°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.5°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.5°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.1°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.2°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.1°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.0°C.

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.79 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.71 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.24 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.82 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.17 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.75 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.64 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.56 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.22 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.71 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.17 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.40 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.83 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.12 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.34 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.20 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.21 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.29 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.61 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.44 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.25 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.17 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.33 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.22 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.21 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.93 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.24 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.89 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.50 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.02 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.77 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.86 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.00 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.38 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.42 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.08 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.27 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.14 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.99 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 548.14 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.21 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.57 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.96 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.03 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.93 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.67 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

bottles with DI water that is 22.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.2°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 23.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 23.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 23.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.9°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.5°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.7°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.5°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 23.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.6°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.0°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.1°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.8°C.

bottles with DI water that is 21.3°C.

bottles with DI water that is 22.8°C.

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.37 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.75 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.57 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.75 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.57 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.19 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.10 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.62 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.69 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.86 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.51 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.85 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.80 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.91 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.33 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.91 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.45 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.55 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.73 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.24 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.46 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.83 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.72 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.06 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.17 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.53 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.84 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.47 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.01 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.44 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.61 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.67 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.45 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.26 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.15 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 544.46 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.79 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 548.11 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.75 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.19 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.14 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.30 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.06 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.17 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 547.69 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 546.20 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

The mass of BOD bottle #1 with the DI water is 545.62 g, the mass of BOD bottle #2 with the DI wa

bottles with DI water that is 22.4°C.

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bottles with DI …

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