STATSprofessor.comChapter 2

Methods for Describing Sets of Data

2.1

Describing Data Graphically

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.

1. Why do we construct frequency tables/distributions?

2. What advantages does a relative frequency table/distribution have over a frequency

table/distribution?

For problems 3 – 6, determine the class width, the class boundaries, and the relative frequencies:

3. Shopping Cart Contents: number of high calorie processed food items

Items

Frequency

0-5

2

6 – 11

4

12 – 17 10

18 – 23 36

24 – 29 7

4. Male heights

Heights

VS

Frequency

60 – 63.9 4

64 – 67.9 9

68 – 71.9 15

72 – 75.9 8

76 – 79.9 3

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Chapter 2

5. Laptop Battery Performance

Hours

frequency

0.5 – 0.9 10

1.0 – 1.4 56

1.5 – 1.9

14

2.0 – 2.4 10

2.5 – 2.9 2

6. Diameter of Genetically Modified Cucumbers

Diameter

Frequency

2.00 – 3.99

1

4.00 – 5.99

5

6.00 – 7.99

23

8.00 – 9.99

11

10.00 – 11.99 2

7. If the smallest number in a data set is 21, the largest is 110, and we want to create a frequency table

with 18 classes, what should your class width be?

8. If the smallest number in a data set is 11, the largest is 89, and we want to create a frequency table

with 19 classes, what should your class width be?

9. If the smallest number in a data set is 1, the largest is 75, and we want to create a frequency table

with 7 classes, what should your class width be?

10. If the smallest number in a data set is 21, the largest is 111, and we want to create a frequency table

with 18 classes, what should your class width be? VS

11. Why do we construct histograms?

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Chapter 2

12. Construct a histogram for the following set of 42 test scores; use five classes and start your first class

at 40. Test scores: 40, 50, 50, 55, 55, 55, 60, 65, 65, 70, 70, 70, 70, 70, 70, 75, 75, 75, 75, 75, 75, 75,

75, 75, 75, 75, 80, 80, 80, 80, 85, 85, 85, 90, 90, 90, 90, 90, 95, 95, 95, 95.

VS

13. Construct a histogram for the following set of 31 class averages; use five classes and start your first

class at 16. Final Averages: 17, 27, 28, 58, 60, 61, 63, 67, 70, 71, 71, 71, 71, 73, 73, 75, 83, 83, 85,

86, 87, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 96, 97, 99, 100.

2.1 Answers:

1. To organize and summarize data, and it is often the first step when creating some sort of visual

display of the data such as a pie chart, bar graph, or histogram.

2. A relative frequency table/distr. reports the proportion or percent of the sampled data that fits in

the particular category. It also makes the graph of the data more manageable since there is a

fixed range for the relative frequencies. Finally, comparisons between relative frequency

tables/distr. are easy even if the sample sizes involved in the creation of the tables/distr. are very

different. To compare frequency tables/distr. with different sample sizes, it is necessary to

convert them into relative frequency tables/distributions.

3.

Items

Frequency Boundaries Rel. Freq

0-5

2

-0.5 – 5.5

0.034

6 – 11

4

5.5 – 11.5

0.068

12 – 17 10

11.5 – 17.5

0.169

18 – 23 36

17.5 – 23.5

0.610

24 – 29 7

23.5 – 29.5

0.119

4.

Heights

Frequency boundaries

Rel. freq.

60 – 63.9 4

59.95 – 63.95 0.103

64 – 67.9 9

63.95 – 67.95 0.231

68 – 71.9 15

67.95 – 71.95 0.385

72 – 75.9 8

71.95 – 75.95 0.205

76 – 79.9 3

75.95 – 79.95 0.077

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Chapter 2

2.1 Answers:

5.

Hours

frequency boundaries Rel. freq.

0.5 – 0.9 10

0.45 – 0.95

0.109

1.0 – 1.4 56

0.95 – 1.45

0.609

1.5 – 1.9

14

1.45 – 1.95

0.152

2.0 – 2.4 10

1.95 – 2.45

0.109

2.5 – 2.9 2

2.45 – 2.95

0.022

Diameter

Frequency boundaries

Rel. Freq.

2.00 – 3.99

1

1.995 – 3.995

0.024

4.00 – 5.99

5

3.995 – 5.995

0.119

6.00 – 7.99

23

5.995 – 7.995

0.548

8.00 – 9.99

11

7.995 – 9.995

0.262

6.

10.00 – 11.99 2

9.995 – 11.995 0.048

7. 5 would work fine here.

8. 4.2 will work, but there are other possibilities.

9. 11 works well here.

10. Answers can vary, but 5.1 would work. Notice that 5 will not work-try it out.

11. We construct histograms to see the distribution of the data, which is easier to see using a graph

as opposed to looking at the frequency table.

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Chapter 2

2.1 Answers:

12. Answers will vary depending on the class width (below I used 11.1):

13. Answers will vary depending on the class width:

40 %

Percent

30 %

20 %

10 %

25 .0 0

50 .0 0

75 .0 0

10 0.00

grade s

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Chapter 2

2.2

Summation Notation

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples: 16 and 16.5.

2

n

n

14. Find xi , xi , and xi2 for the following set of data: 4, -3, 7, 3, -10, and 9.

i 1

i 1

i 1

n

2

n

n

15. Find xi , xi , and xi2 for the following set of data: 1, 2, -3, 3, 0, and 4.

i 1

i 1

i 1

n

16. Find

n

n

i 1

i 1

xi 4 and ( xi 4) for the following data set: 7, 9, 2, -1, and 3.

VS

n

17. Find

( x 4) for the following data set: 7, 9, 2, -1, and 3.

2

i

i 1

n

18. Find

x 4 for the following data set: 17, 18, 20, -15, and 6.

2

i 1

i

2

n

xi

n

2

19. Find xi i 1 using the following data {1, 2, 3, 4}.

4

i 1

2.2

Answers:

14. 10, 100, and 264

15. 7, 49, and 39

16. 16 and 0

17. 64

18. 1,270

19. 5

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Chapter 2

2.3

Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, Mode

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Example 18 and the concept video.

20. Find the mean, median, and mode for the following FPL electric bill amounts:

Jan-09

$52.28

Jul-09

$146.23

Feb-09

$91.38

Aug-09

$215.94

Mar-09

$119.02

Sep-09

$204.80

Apr-09

$85.74

Oct-09

$209.10

May-09

$103.44

Nov-09

$204.80

Jun-09

$163.14

Dec-09

$102.36

21. Find the mean, median, and mode for the following earnings data for a person who started working

at age 14 in 1989.

1989

1990

1991

1992

$815.00

$2,187.00

$1,627.00

$226.00

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

$11,568.00

$9,236.00

$9,968.00 $12,487.00

$224.00

2003

2004

2005

2006

1993

1994

1995

$4,242.00 $10,316.00

$8,057.00

2007

2001

2002

$0.00 $14,979.00

2008

2009

$18,053.00 $20,100.00 $41,097.00 $47,767.00 $45,501.00 $55,959.00 $69,251.00

22. Which measure of the center would you recommend to best represent the data above: mean,

median, or mode? Why?

23. A branch of a local bank decides to try two different approaches to manage their lines of customers.

During one Friday, the branch uses only one line. As one of the four tellers become free, customers

move into the open window position. On another Friday, customers choose any of four lines with a

teller at each end. A sample of some of the waiting times in minutes is included below for each of

the two line strategies. Calculate the mean for each strategy and compare them. What do you

notice?

Single Line:

6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.7, 7.7, 7.7

Multiple Lines:

4.2, 5.4, 5.8, 6.2, 6.7, 7.7, 7.7, 8.5, 9.3, 10.0

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24. A list of home sales in the zip code 33441 is included below. Which measure of the center would be

most appropriate: mean, median, or mode?

Selling price: $226,102;

$266,100;

$305, 100;

$4,505, 000;

$198,660;

$356,400;

$315, 000,

$335, 500

25. A random sample of FIU freshman was collected and polled to determine what kind of high school

they attended: public, private, or home school. The results are below. Which measure of the center

would be most appropriate: mean, median, or mode?

private, public, public, public, private, private, public, public, public, home school, public, private

26. A professional organization for attorneys would like to report the typical earnings of their members.

If the group consists of a mix of corporate attorneys, family law attorneys, real estate attorneys, and

several very low paid public defenders, what measure of the center would be most appropriate?

VS

27. In general, between the mean and median, the mean is the preferred measure of the center. Why?

2.3

Answers:

20. Mean: 141.52, Median: 132.63, Mode: 204.80

21. Mean: 18,269.52, Median: 10,316.00, Mode: no mode

22. Median, because the zero and the years with very little pay are extreme values that heavily

influence the mean. Also, this data reflects two different phases of life for the worker (youth and

adulthood). This person did not earn a lot in his/her younger years, but then earns much more in

the second half. The median states that for half of the provided years the worker made more

than $10,316.00.

23. 7.15, for both, but the multiple line scenario seems more varied. Some people wait half as long as

others in that line.

24. Median due to the extreme value, $4,505, 000.

25. Mode

26. Median due to the very low paid public defenders.

27. The median ignores every value in the data set except the middle value. This allows many unique

distributions to have the same median but be very different otherwise. The mean takes a

contribution from every data value which in general is a better strategy.

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Chapter 2

2.4

Skewed Distributions

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples 19, 20, and 21.

28. If the population mean for a measurement is 98.3 and the population median for the same

measurement is 92.6, the population is most likely: Left-skewed, Right-Skewed, or Symmetric?

29. If the population mean for a measurement is 12.4 and the population median for the same

measurement is 15.8, the population is most likely: Left-skewed, Right-Skewed, or Symmetric?

30. If the population mean for a measurement is 76 and the population median for the same

measurement is 76, the population is most likely: Left-skewed, Right-Skewed, or Symmetric?

31. In a right-skewed distribution the order of the mean, median, and mode on the number line from

left to right is:

A.

Mean, Mode, Median

B. Median, Mean, Mode

C.

Mode, Mean, Median

D. Mode, Median, Mean

32. True or False: In a bell curve, the mean, median, and mode are all in the same place.

33. At the World Cup a statistician keeps track of the time when every first goal in a match is scored.

The statistician reported that the mean time it takes for a goal to be scored is 35.3 minutes. Suppose

that the statistician indicated that the time-to-first-goal distribution was skewed to the right. Which of

the following values is most likely the value of the median time-to-first-goal?

VS

A. 44.6

C. 38.1

B. 32.5

D. 35. 9

2.4

Answers:

28. Right-Skewed

29. Left-skewed

30. Symmetric

31. D

32. True

33. B

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Chapter 2

2.5

Measures of Variability: Range, Standard Deviation, and Variance

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples 22, 23, and the concept

video.

34. Find the Range, Variance, and the Standard Deviation for the following FPL electric bill amounts:

(Note, use the following to speed the calculations:

n 12, X $1,698.23, X 2 $276,014.86 )

VS

Jan-09

$52.28

Jul-09

$146.23

Feb-09

$91.38

Aug-09

$215.94

Mar-09

$119.02

Sep-09

$204.80

Apr-09

$85.74

Oct-09

$209.10

May-09

$103.44

Nov-09

$204.80

Jun-09

$163.14

Dec-09

$102.36

35. What would the units for the standard deviation be in the problem above? What units would the

variance have?

36. Find the Range, Variance, and the Standard Deviation for the following earnings data for a person

who started working at age 14 in 1989.

VS

(Note, use the following to help speed up the calculations:

X $383,660.00, X $15,594,326,388.00 )

2

1989

1990

1991

1992

$815.00

$2,187.00

$1,627.00

$226.00

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

$11,568.00

$9,236.00

$9,968.00 $12,487.00

$224.00

$0.00

$14,979.00

2003

2004

2007

2008

2009

$18,053.00 $20,100.00 $41,097.00 $47,767.00 $45,501.00 $55,959.00

$69,251.00

2005

2006

1993

1994

1995

$4,242.00 $10,316.00

$8,057.00

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Chapter 2

37. What measure of variation is more appropriate for the problem above, the range or the standard

deviation? Why?

38. A branch of a local bank decides to try two different approaches to manage their lines of customers.

During one Friday, the branch uses only one line. As one of the four tellers become free, customers

move into the open window position. On another Friday, customers choose any of four lines with a

teller at each end. A sample of some of the waiting times in minutes is included below for each of

the two line strategies. Calculate the standard deviation for each strategy and compare them.

Which method would you recommend to the bank?

Single Line:

6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.7, 7.7, 7.7

Multiple Lines:

4.2, 5.4, 5.8, 6.2, 6.7, 7.7, 7.7, 8.5, 9.3, 10.0

(Note, use the following to speed the calculations. Single line:

X 71.5, X 513.27, n 10 ; multiple lines: X 71.5, X 541.09, n 10 )

2

2

VS

39. What would the units for the standard deviation be in the problem above? What units would the

variance have?

40. Which do you think has more variation: the 100 yard dash finishing times for the 20 member track

and field team at a local prep school or the 100 yard dash finishing times for twenty randomly

chosen members of the faculty from the same school?

VS

41. Which do you think has more variation: the weights of 28 heavy weight wrestlers or the weights of

28 starters for the Minnesota Vikings football team?

42. Which do you think has more variation: the ages of 16 randomly chosen elementary school children

or the ages of 16 randomly chosen high school seniors?

43. Which do you think has more variation: the IQ’s of 10 randomly chosen college professors or the

IQ’s of 10 randomly chosen customers at the mall?

44. If X and Y have the same mean, but X has a standard deviation of 26.3 seconds and Y has a standard

deviation of 12.1 seconds, which variable exhibits the stronger central tendency?

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Chapter 2

2.5

Answers:

34. Variance:3,243.89, Standard Deviation: 56.96, Range: 163.66

35. St. Dev: dollars; Variance: dollars squared

36. Variance: 429,252,044.2, Standard Deviation: 20,718.40 , Range: 69,251.00

37. Standard deviation, there are too many values to use the range.

38. Single line: s = 0.477; Multiple lines: s = 1.822; Single line because the waiting time is more

predictable. For example, you could promise that the line should take between 6 and 8 minutes

with a reasonable certainty.

39. Minutes for the st. dev.; minutes squared for variance.

40. The faculty times would be more varied.

41. The Vikings’ weights would be more varied, since some of the players are super heavy while

others (like the kicker) are much smaller.

42. The elementary school kids have more varied ages.

43. The customer IQs would be more varied.

44. Y because it has a smaller standard deviation.

Need more exercises?

2.6

Chebyshev’s Theorem

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples 24, 24.5, and the video

on Range Rule of Thumb.

45. In the FPL data we worked with above, for the twelve month period, the lowest amount was 52.28

and the highest amount was 215.94. Using these values and the range rule of thumb, estimate the

standard deviation for the data.

46. There are probably some women who weigh 290 pounds, and I have known women who weigh 95

pounds. Use these values and the range rule of thumb to estimate the standard deviation for

women’s weights.

47. The average check at a local restaurant is $36.42 with a standard deviation of $8.15. What is the

minimum percentage of checks between $15.23 and $57.61?

VS

48. The average woman spends 60 minutes getting ready to leave the house for work. If the standard

deviation is 15.8 minutes, what is the minimum percentage of women who will spend between 20

minutes and 100 minutes getting ready?

VS

49. The average woman spends 60 minutes getting ready to leave the house for work. If the standard

deviation is 15.8 minutes, what percentage of women will spend more than 110 minutes getting

ready?

VS

50. In the FPL problem from above, we saw that the average bill was $141.52 and the standard

deviation was $56.96. Assuming these values are a good estimate of the population values, what

percentage of bills will be higher than $215.00?

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Chapter 2

51. If the average time to a major repair for a Toyota Corolla is 8 years with a standard deviation of 0.9

years, what percent of Toyotas will have a major repair before the car is paid off (assume a 5 year

car payment)? Does this car seem like a safe buy?

VS

2.6

Answers:

45. Dividing the range by 4 (since it is a small sample), we get 40.92.

46. Dividing the range by 6 (since I used some extreme examples), we get 32.5.

47. Chebyshev’s Rule: 85.2% is the minimum percentage between the two given limits.

48. 84.4% is the minimum percentage between the two given limits.

49. At most 10% (because at least 90% will take between 10 and 110 minutes).

50. At most 60% (because at least 40% will be between 68.04 and 215 dollars).

51. At most 9% (because at least 90% will last between 5 and 11 years before the first major repair). I

think it seems like a safe buy.

Need more exercises?

2.7

Empirical Rule

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples 25 and 26.

52. Women’s heights are normally distributed with an average height of 64 inches and a standard

deviation of 2.5 inches. Approximately what percentage of women are between 56.5 inches tall and

71.5 inches tall (4’8.5’’ and 5’11.5’’)?

53. Women’s heights are normally distributed with an average height of 64 inches and a standard

deviation of 2.5 inches. Approximately what percentage of women are shorter than 4’11’’ (59

inches) tall?

VS

54. Men’s weights are normally distributed with a mean of 172 pounds and a standard deviation of 26

pounds. Approximately what percentage of men are heavier than 224 pounds?

55. Men’s weights are normally distributed with a mean of 172 pounds and a standard deviation of 26

pounds. Approximately what percentage of men are between 120 and 198 pounds?

VS

2.7

Answers:

52. Empirical rule: 99.7%

53. 2.5%

54. 2.5%

55. 81.5%

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Chapter 2

2.8

Measures of Relative Standing – Z scores

To complete this section of homework watch Chapter Two, Lecture Examples 27 and 27.5.

56. The tallest woman in the world is 91.25 inches tall. If the mean for women’s heights is 64 inches

with a standard deviation of 2.5 inches, how many standard deviations above average is the tallest

woman’s height?

57. Men have an average height of 69 inches with a standard deviation of 2.8 inches. If Shaquille O’Neil

stands at 85 inches tall, is his height unusual? Why?

VS

58. If the average electric bill at my house is $142 with a standard deviation of $56. Should I be

concerned that a bill of $311 is unusually high?

59. For tax payers who make $140,000 per year, the average amount of tax owed to the government is

$18,200 with a standard deviation of $1500. If the IRS receives a 1040 tax document from a tax

payer who earned $140,000 that claims he only owes $12,000, should the IRS suspect the tax payer

has likely made an error?

VS

60. Jim knows that the average pregnancy lasts 268 days with a standard deviation of 15 days. A girl he

once dated but hasn’t seen in 330 days shows up at his door with a two week old child saying the

baby is his. Jim thinks she is lying. Would this girl have to have carried for an unusual length of time

for the child to be Jim’s?

VS

61. Which score is relatively better? A 68 in a class where the average is a 65 and the standard

deviation is 10, or a 72 in a class where the average is a 67 with a standard deviation of 15?

62. Which score is relatively better? A 56 in a class where the average is a 65 and the standard

deviation is 8, or a 72 in a class where the average is an 80 with a standard deviation of 7?

VS

63. Which is relatively better? A 78 in a class where the average is a 70 and the standard deviation is 6,

or a 72 in a class where the average is a 64 with a standard deviation of 5?

VS

2.8

Answers:

56. 10.9, this is very unusual!

57. His Z score is 5.71. Yes, he is very unusual.

58. Yes, the z score is 3.02. This is unusual.

59. Yes, the IRS should question his return because the z-score for his return is -4.13.

60. Yes, it seems unlikely that Jim’s the father. The z-score for this pregnancy length is 3.20 (don’t

forget to subtract the two weeks).

61. The 72 is better.

62. The 56 is a little better (remember they are both below average and that -1.13 is closer to zero or

average than -1.14).

63. The 72 is better.

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mixed Review

64. Calculate the standard deviation for a set of 12 values that have the following summary values:

n

n

x 357.9 and x 61, 084.3

i 1

i

i 1

2

i

65. Under typical use, a cell phone has an average battery life of 5.21 hours and a standard deviation

of 0.45 hours. What is the minimum percentage of phones that will last between 3.42 hours and

7.00 hours?

66. When there are a few extreme values present in a data set, the ________ is a suitable measure of

the center.

67. The following frequency distribution contains the heights of women. Find the class boundaries for

the third class.

Inches

Frequencies

58 – 61.9 15

62 – 65.9 34

66 – 69.9 20

70 – 73.9 8

74 – 77.9 2

68. True or False: The range is easy to calculate and easy to understand, but it is insensitive as a

measure of variation for data sets with many values.

69. The largest value in a set of data is 32. The smallest is 2. If we wish to create a frequency table for

the data that has 5 classes, what class width should we use?

A. 8

B. 6

C. 5

D. 7

E. 30

F. None of these

n

70. Use the provided values to find the sum: {7, 8, 1, 4, 6, -9}

x 4

i 1

2

i

71. Women’s heights have a bell-shaped distribution with a mean of 64 inches and a standard

deviation of 2.5 inches. Approximately what percent of women are between 56.5 inches and 61.5

inches tall?

72. The average commute to campus takes 42.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 8.4 minutes.

What percent of commutes are longer than 75 minutes?

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Chapter 2

73. If the average commute to campus takes 42.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 8.4 minutes,

would a 60 minute commute be unusual?

74. Which group of measurements would likely exhibit more variation: the weights of pennies or the

weights of city bus passengers?

75. Who earns more money relative to their peers? A barber earns $21.50 per hour. A mechanic

earns $22.75 per hour. The average salary for barbers is $14.25 with a standard deviation of

$2.26. The average salary for mechanics is $17.15 with a standard deviation of $2.37.

Chapter 2 Mixed Review Answers

64. 67.7

65. at least 93.7%

66. median

67. 65.95 – 69.95

68. true; remember, many, very different data sets can have the same range

69. D. 7

70. 207

71. 15.85%

72. at most 6.6%

73. yes, because it has a z score of 2.11

74. the bus passengers because they come in all different sizes

75. the barber because his wage has a z score of 3.21.

Bonus material: Coefficient of variation. We cannot compare the variation directly for two variables

that are measured in different units, but we can calculate a unit-less measure called the Coefficient of

Variation (CV). If the CV for one variable is smaller than the CV for another it has less variation. Let’s

compare men’s heights and weights to see which varies more:

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Chapter 2

We calculate the CV by using the following formula: CV

S

100%

X

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