HAP 602 Statistics for Health Services Management Assignment Overview: Case Study 3

HAP 602 Statistics for Health Services Management
Assignment Overview: Case Study 3
Health surveys are commonly conducted to evaluate the overall state of affairs in terms of health decisions and
trends. Often, the data collected are paired with other extant data in order to see if relationships exist that were
not specifically studied or around which data were not specifically collected.
The Centers for Disease Control, of course, collect thousands of data elements from a variety of health settings
and surveys. The data set attached, “Case Study 3 – States.csv” includes 6 variables:
• Food hardship rate – the reported rate of persons that experience the inability to purchase the
food they need at least once in the last 12 months;
• Obesity rate – the rate of obese persons, which is defined as having a BMI of 30 or greater;
• Adult cigarette use – the proportion of persons 16 or older smoking more than 100 cigarettes in their
lifetime and who continue to smoke;
• Child cigarette use – the proportion of persons under 16 smoking more than 100 cigarettes in their
lifetime and who continue to smoke;
• Tax – the number of cents of state tax levied on a pack of 20 cigarettes; and
• Location – the geographical location in the US to which each state and US is a member.
1. Create a scatterplot of the data for Food Hardship Rate and Obesity Rate. Copy the scatterplot
into this document with axes and chart titles and interpret what the scatterplot tells us about the relationship
between the two variables.
2. For the food hardship and obesity variables, determine the strength of any correlation, and
determine whether it is significant at 0.05. Interpret the meaning of the correlation coefficient. A quick p-value
calculator for Pearson correlation can be found on Social Science Statistics website
(https://www.socscistatistics.com/pvalues/pearsondistribution.aspx). Write a journal entry for the results.
3. For the adult smoking and child smoking variables, determine the strength of any correlation,
and determine whether it is significant at 0.05. Interpret the meaning of the correlation coefficient. A quick pvalue calculator for Pearson correlation can be found at
https://www.socscistatistics.com/pvalues/pearsondistribution.aspx. Write a journal entry for the results.
4. One method of decreasing the smoking rate is to increase the tax rate on a pack of cigarettes.
Using the mean of the adult and child rate for each state and DC, consider predicting the smoking rate
from the tax rate.
a) Calculate the mean of the adult and child smoking rates for each state and DC – insert this in an Excel
column.
b) With tax rate as the predictor variable, conduct a simple linear regression analysis on the data for
mean adult and child smoking rate. In the analysis, you would typically report:
1
HAP 602 Statistics for Health Services Management
Assignment Overview: Case Study 3

A regression plot analysis
A statement and interpretation of the significance
The regression equation and its meaning
A statement and interpretation of R2
Practical statement of meaningfulness
5) Researchers attempt to see if there are relationships between variables that are not scale in nature, as well. In
this case, we have 6 categories of “Location.” A bar chart showing the number of smokers in a random sample of
1000 residents in each region is shown below.
Smokers
250
200
194
203
196
180
168
164
150
100
50
0
Mid-Atlantic
Midwest
Northeast
South
Southwest
West
Smokers
a. Determine the number in each 1000 resident sample that are nonsmokers.
b. Using the chi-square test for independence, determine whether or not the number of smokers in a
region is independent of the region.
• Indicate the null and alternate hypotheses.
• Use the calculator at http://turner.faculty.swau.edu/mathematics/math241/materials/contablecal
c/entry.php to conduct the chi-square test at 0.05.
• Interpret the results and write a journal entry for the results.
2
HAP 602 Statistics for Health Services Management
Assignment Overview: Case Study 3
3
StateName State
DistrictofColumbia
DC
Maryland MD
Pennsylvania
PA
Virginia
VA
WestVirginiaWV
NorthCarolina
NC
SouthCarolina
SC
Missouri MO
Montana MT
Wisconsin WI
Illinois
IL
Indiana
IN
Iowa
IA
Kansas
KS
Michigan MI
Ohio
OH
Kentucky KY
ConnecticutCT
Delaware DE
Maine
ME
Massachusetts
MA
NewHampshire
NH
NewJersey NJ
NewYork NY
RhodeIslandRI
Vermont VT
Alabama AL
Arkansas AR
Florida
FL
Georgia
GA
Louisiana LA
Mississippi MS
Oklahoma OK
Tennessee TN
Texas
TX
Utah
UT
Arizona
AZ
California CA
Hawaii
HI
NV
NewMexicoNM
Minnesota MN
NorthDakotaND
SouthDakota
SD
FoodHardshipRate
YouthCigaretteUse
TaxCentsPerPack
Location
0.163
0.237
153
207
250 Mid-Atlantic
0.163
0.283
152
119
200 Mid-Atlantic
0.15
0.286
202
184
160 Mid-Atlantic
0.166
0.292
190
243
30 Mid-Atlantic
0.225
0.324
256
218
55 Mid-Atlantic
0.211
0.291
203
177
45 Mid-Atlantic
0.219
0.308
204
205
7 Mid-Atlantic
0.195
0.303
231
189
17 Midwest
0.154
0.246
168
187
170 Midwest
0.144
0.284
167
183
64 Midwest
0.137
0.277
188
169
252 Midwest
0.175
0.271
186
181
98 Midwest
0.203
0.308
231
235
99.5 Midwest
0.155
0.29
172
200
136 Midwest
0.149
0.296
178
169
79 Midwest
0.181
0.313
196
188
200 Midwest
0.198
0.296
203
167
125 Midwest
0.223
0.304
256
261
60 Midwest
0.14
0.245
154
178
300 Northeast
0.21
0.288
183
190
160 Northeast
0.167
0.278
173
181
200 Northeast
0.145
0.227
150
160
251 Northeast
0.152
0.262
158
208
178 Northeast
0.158
0.237
158
170
270 Northeast
0.176
0.245
180
148
275 Northeast
0.181
0.254
151
133
346 Northeast
0.16
0.254
171
176
224 Northeast
0.234
0.32
225
208
42.5 South
0.211
0.309
215
203
115 South
0.216
0.266
171
161
133.9 South
0.217
0.28
177
169
37 South
0.213
0.334
221
176
36 South
0.245
0.349
233
196
68 South
0.213
0.311
255
226
103 South
0.217
0.292
220
209
62 South
0.216
0.304
179
212
141 South
0.177
0.244
98
85
69.5 Southwest
0.16
0.207
171
177
84 Southwest
0.205
0.247
161
197
200 Southwest
0.193
0.238
129
145
87 Southwest
0.118
0.218
154
152
260 Southwest
0.2
0.245
220
170
80 Southwest
0.181
0.263
179
240
91 Southwest
0.126
0.257
168
187
156 West
0.1
0.278
186
224
44 West
0.152
0.281
175
232
153 West
Wyoming WY
Idaho
ID
AK
Oregon
OR
WashingtonWA
0.147
0.189
0.182
0.18
0.164
0.25
0.27
0.274
0.267
0.265
199
163
206
179
149
221
145
157
171
125
60
57
200
118
302.5
West
West
West
West
West
Smokers
Mid-Atlantic
194
Midwest
196
Northeast
168
South
203
Southwest
163
West
180
250
200
194
196
Mid-Atlantic
Midwest
150
100
50
0
Smokers
203
196
180
168
Midwest
Northeast
163
South
Southwest
West

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