IE 330 AUM Statistics Cell Phones and Brain Tumours Relationship Paper

Department of Statistics
Academic Year: 2022/2023
Date: 22.12.2022 23:59
Semester: Fall
Course Information
Course Code:
Instructor Name:
Nilufer Pekin Alakoc
Assignment Information
Assignment Type:
Earned Mark
Deliverable 2 (10%)
Number of Questions:
Number of Pages:
Students Information
Student 1:
Name: …………………………………..
ID: …………………..
Student 2:
Name: …………………………………..
ID: …………………..
Student 3:
Name: …………………………………..
ID: …………………..
List of covered course outcome in this assignment:
1) Understand the meaning and the applications of statistical inference, and confidence interval (1,3, 6)*
2) Understand the meaning and the applications of parametric and non-parametric hypothesis tests (1, 6)*

Students of each section need to form project groups of 3 students.

One of the students from the group will upload the assessment file to the created
turnitin link on Moodle in PDF (or Word) format.

In deliverable 2 every answer should be typed, the handwritten calculations
should be added in Appendix.

In deliverable 2 students must demonstrate their skills in terms of analysis,
numerical simulation, software applications, and writing a structured report in
APA style.

Every answer should be well explained, in full details. (For every question explain
your approach, justify the use of formulas and properties, explain the steps of
your calculations, discuss the results in terms of the given problem.)

Students should use a software (Minitab) for the analyses.

Any missing information will result in deduction of marks.
 The physical layout and formatting of your project report is highly important. It
should be a tidy and consistently formatted document, what makes the reading
easier and is suggestive of a careful and professional attitude towards its

APA style should be used.

Read the following case study carefully and use the template file to report your

Deliverable 2
Marking scheme:
IE330 Probability and Statistics in Engineering II
Page | 2
Case study:
Cellular (cell or mobile) phones first became widely available in the United States
in the 1990s. Since then, along with the large and still growing number of cell phone
users (both adults and children), the amount of time people spend on their phones
has also risen sharply. Cell phones give off a form of energy known as
radiofrequency (RF) waves, so the safety of cell phone use has raised some
concerns. The main concerns have focused on whether cell phones might increase
the risk of brain tumors or other tumors in the head and neck area, as these areas
are closest to where the phone is usually held while talking or listening on a call.
Cell phones send signals to (and receive them from) nearby cell towers (base
stations) using RF waves. This is a form of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum
that falls between FM radio waves and microwaves. Like FM radio waves,
microwaves, visible light, and heat, RF waves are a form of non-ionizing radiation.
They don’t have enough energy to cause cancer by directly damaging the DNA
(genes) inside cells. RF waves are different from stronger (ionizing) types of
radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet (UV) rays. Ionizing radiation
can break the chemical bonds in DNA, which might lead to cancer.
At very high levels, RF waves can heat up body tissues. But the levels of energy
given off by cell phones are much lower, and are not enough to raise temperatures
in the body. The RF waves come from the cell phone’s antenna, which is part of the
body of a hand-held phone. The waves are strongest at the antenna and lose
energy quickly as they travel away from the phone. The phone is often held against
the head when a person is on a call. The closer the antenna is to a user’s head, the
greater their expected exposure to RF waves. The body tissues closest to the phone
absorb more energy from RF waves than tissues farther away.
Many factors can affect the amount of energy from RF waves that a person is
exposed to, including:

The amount of time the person is on the phone.
IE330 Probability and Statistics in Engineering II
Page | 3

Whether the person is holding the phone close to the head, or is instead using
the speaker mode or a hands-free device. The farther away from a person’s
body the phone is, the less they are exposed.

The distance and path to the nearest cell phone tower. Cell phones adjust their
power to use the minimum amount for a good signal. Being farther away from
the tower requires more energy to get a good signal, as does being inside a

The amount of cell phone traffic in the area at the time. Higher traffic (from many
people using cell phones) may require more energy to get a good signal.

The model of phone being used. Different phones give off different amounts of
The specific absorption rate (SAR) is the amount of RF energy from the phone
absorbed by the user’s body. Different cell phones have different SAR levels. Cell
phone makers are required to report the maximum SAR level of their product to the
US Federal Communications Commission (FCC). This information can often be
found on the manufacturer’s website or in the user manual for the phone. The upper
limit of SAR allowed in the United States according to FCC safety guidelines is 1.6
watts per kilogram (W/kg) of body weight.
SAR testing needs to be done to make sure that the product’s safety and
compliance requirements are met. Different countries have introduced standards
that limit the amount of RF exposure allowed from a variety of wireless devices.
Avoiding natural and manmade sources of radiation is impossible. With SAR testing
the amount of RF exposure from a mobile phone or any other wireless device can
be measured. Also, SAR testing can be done in all stages during product
development cycle. An early stage SAR testing allows manufacturer to control and
modify product more easily.
Do cell phones cause tumors?
Because cell phones usually are held near the head when a person is on a call, the
main concern has been whether the phones might cause or contribute to tumors in
this area, including:

Malignant (cancerous) brain tumors, such as gliomas
IE330 Probability and Statistics in Engineering II
Page | 4

Non-cancerous tumors of the brain, such as meningiomas

Non-cancerous tumors of the nerve connecting the brain to the ear (vestibular
schwannomas, also known as acoustic neuromas)

Tumors of the salivary glands

A few studies have also looked at possible links to other types of cancer.
IE330 Probability and Statistics in Engineering II
Page | 5

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