kinesiology

 

Use the mock data attached above to help you complete this week’s CAP.  Please note the various tabs of the Excel sheet for your particular research question.  Do not alter the data that has been provided.  Further details are noted in the CAP 5 Document.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
kinesiology
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

What is due:

  • Word document addressing the questions included.  An example is attached for your reference (please note the example is not in APA format). Please be sure you are following APA formatting guidelines throughout your paper.

  

KIN 473 CAP 5:

Results

and Discussion (Part 1)

Results

1. Using the mock data specific to your research question found in Blackboard, perform a gain-score analysis on your sample. Please follow the video example included in Blackboard for a step-by-step guide on how to conduct this analysis. Please be sure to include the table of your analysis results.

2. Describe the results of your analysis using APA formatting. Do not attempt to explain or discuss your findings, simply report them.

3. Using Microsoft Excel, create at least one table in APA format to quantify information about your participants (demographic information should be included at a minimum).

4. Using Microsoft Excel, create at least one figure in APA format to illustrate your primary finding(s).

Discussion (part 1)

5. Examine the discussion section of the attached article. Make note of the various components that comprise a well-written discussion.

6. Following the example article, create an outline for your own discussion section below.

2

>HIITvsLISS

Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg) Body Comp Pre (% BF) Body Comp Post (% BF) Gain Score

1

2

2 17

19

3

22

4 9 9 4

5

5

14

6 9

6 7 9

7 9 8 7

8 5 6 8 12 13
9 15 13 9 8 8
10 18 17 10

15

18 11 9 9

12 22 21 12 11 10
13 20 20 13 14 13
14 5 7 14 9 10
15 23 20 15 16 14
16 5 6 16 12 12
17 16 14 17 12 11
18

22 18 18 17

19 21 20 19 19 17
20 14 12 20 13 14
21 19 18 21 21 19
22

20 22 21 20

23 9 8 23 11 12
24 9 10 24 18 18
25 12 13 25 11 10

21 19 26 20 17

8 9 27 8 9

10 9 28 13 12

13 12 29 16 15

13 10 30 12 13

13 14 31 18 19

7 9 32 9 9

25 20 33 19 17

15 13 34 7 8

20 17 35 18 18

25 22 36 20 19

21 19 37 17 18

23 18 38 12 11

10 9 39 9 10

15 13 40 13 12

8 9 41 11 10

17 15 42 9 10

14 15 43 18 17

10 8 44 16 14

16 12 45 13 12

7 9 46 19 17

11 11 47 11 10

8 7 48 18 18

25 20 49 12 10

12 11 50 10 8

ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

14.5 ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0!

HIIT Group Low Intensity Steady-State Group
Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg) Body Comp Pre (% BF) Body Comp Post (% BF) Gain Score
1 22 20 1

9 1

8
1

7 17 19
3 1

6 2

4
14 1

5
23 18 15
10
13 12
16
11 21
25
24
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! 14.6 13.4 14.5
SD: 6.2 4.9 5.0 4.4

CreatineBP

Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg)

Gain Score Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg) 1RM Bench Pre (kg) 1RM Bench Post (kg) Gain Score

1

1

2

2

3 107 110 3

99

4

110 4

5 105

5 97

6

6 95

7

95 7

99

8

93 8 105

9

92 9 97 103

10 109

10

100

11 92

11 93 108

12

95 12 87 96

13 82

13 110

14 90 96 14

94

15 92 94 15 87 97
16 88 90 16 80 88
17

82 17 86 92

18

85 18 97 100

19 84

19 105 104

20 110 109 20 109 118
21 89 94 21 90 97
22 110

22 105 108

23 107 109 23 97 101
24 87 90 24 84 92
25

108 25 86 90

26 92 100 26 87 92
27 93 99 27 92 94
28 96 105 28 100 101
29 92 97 29 95 100
30 98 104 30 99 105
31 86 87 31 99 103
32 103 109 32 89 96
33 99 110 33 89 93
34 109 114 34 93 100
35 86 90 35 108

36 82 84 36 98

37 105 110 37 100 104
38 92 100 38 80 90
39 91 99 39 104 107
40 80 90 40

90

41 95 106 41 88 90
42 103 113 42 90 94
43 94 100 43 98 98
44 91 101 44 100 101
45 104 116 45 97 100
46 93 104 46 100 105
47 82 90 47 94 100
48 81 84 48 83 88
49 105 104 49 89 92
50 110

50 104 107

Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0!

SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0!

Exercise Group Exercise + Creatine Group
1RM Bench Pre (kg) 1RM Bench Post (kg)
95 97 101 110
98 99 100 107
88
103 105 109
111 108
82 87 104
91 92
93 114
90
112 94
96
86
85 118
80
81
84
89
116
102
113
106
83
119
97.3 100.6 97.4 105.3
8.7 9.3 5.5 5.1

AltitudeEndur

Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg)

Gain Score Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg) 5k Time Pre (min:sec) 5k Time Post (min:sec) Gain Score

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

16:20

9

9

10

10

11

16:48 11

12 18:36

12 20:01

13

16:56 13

17:04

14

14

15 18:36

15

16

16

17

21:30 17

16:17

18

18

19:30

19

19

20:10

20

20

18:40

21 20:01

21

22 20:10

22

23 16:27

23

18:01

24

24 21:00

25

18:01 25 19:48

26

19:47 26

27 18:36

27 18:20 17:49

28

28

29

29

21:20

30

19:47 30

15:50

31

31

32 21:07

32

20:47

33 18:18 18:26 33

19:50

34 20:09

34

19:19

35

35

16:02

36 17:56 18:01 36

37 20:09 20:20 37 20:04 19:29
38

38

39 20:04 20:01 39 18:18 18:02
40

40 18:40

41

21:47 41

42 21:18

42

15:58

43 16:04

43

44 17:00 16:48 44

16:30

45 18:05 18:01 45

16:48

46 17:50 17:40 46

47

47

16:40

48 17:01

48

18:01

49

21:18 49

50 19:12 19:01 50

16:59

Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! 18:49 18:47 ERROR:#DIV/0! Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! 18:38

ERROR:#DIV/0!

SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

0.1 ERROR:#DIV/0! SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! 0.1 0.1 ERROR:#DIV/0!

Sea Level Group Altitude Group
5k Time Pre (min:sec) 5k Time Post (min:sec)
16:10 15:50 17:04 16:48
20:04 20:01 17:56 17:01
19:38 19:04 16:20 16:24
16:17 16:02 16:14 15:48
16:27 15:57 18:36 17:49
16:56 16:49 19:54 19:36
20:47 20:45 16:21 16:04
16:00 15:58 16:30
21:08 21:00 17:59 16:58
19:15 18:47 19:24 18:57
17:02 19:03 18:40
18:20 19:30
16:52 17:46
21:17 21:30 18:12 18:01
18:02 21:05 20:10
21:50 21:47 20:12 19:47
21:39 16:37
18:18 18:26 19:49
18:58 18:49 20:58
17:24 17:26 19:44
20:09 19:28 19:01
19:48 21:07 20:20
16:40 18:38
21:20 21:18 20:50
17:38 19:29
19:50 18:50 18:03
18:45
18:05 18:52 20:31 20:05
20:40 20:36 21:59
19:46 16:05
17:54 17:50 19:19 18:53
21:02 21:04
19:37
20:00 20:14
17:00 17:30 16:16
18:29 17:58
18:10 18:13 17:47 17:40
17:28 17:25 18:09
21:53 19:12 18:48
22:00 16:11
16:09 17:06 16:59
16:42
17:08
16:47 16:28
17:36 17:31 16:32
16:55 18:04
21:21 21:12 20:02
17:34
17:10
0.1

HamstringFlex

Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg)

Gain Score Subject ID Sex (M/F) Age Height (cm) Weight (kg) ROM Pre (*) ROM Post (*) Gain Score

1 98 100 1

2 81 87 2 91 97
3 98 100 3

82

4

4

85

5

5 104 106

6 84 88 6 83 85
7 96 97 7 91 93
8 103 109 8 69

9 90 91 9 71

10 67

10 88 91

11 84 83 11 105 108
12

68 12 105 112

13 101 105 13 86 93
14 87 91 14 96 103
15 104 108 15 93 100
16 81 88 16 85 92
17 85 89 17 68

18 92 96 18 81 83
19 102 106 19 83 85
20 96 100 20 97 99
21 84 88 21 94 99
22 83 87 22 74 79
23 69 73 23 98 103
24 84 86 24 98 103
25 66 68 25 78 83
26 92 100 26 76 83
27 89 91 27 90 93
28 98 100 28 66 69
29 90 92 29 95 98
30 97 99 30 84 92
31 86 89 31 90 98
32 69 72 32 83 91
33 105 108 33 98 106
34 91 99 34 78 86
35 96 103 35 96 104
36 104 111 36 85 93
37 100 107 37 83 91
38 74

38 65 66

39 98 101 39 74 75
40 73 76 40 103 104
41 89 92 41 91 95
42 98 104 42 103 107
43 100 106 43 92 96
44 76 82 44 74 84
45 81 83 45 92 98
46 66 74 46 91 97
47 80 84 47 90 94
48 104 108 48 87 95
49 76 84 49 80 88
50 94 102 50 80 88
Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! Mean: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

85.3 ERROR:#DIV/0!

SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0! SD: ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0!

ERROR:#DIV/0!

Static Group Dynamic Group
ROM Pre (*) ROM Post (*)
72 78
76
69 73 79
67 71
68
74
66
65
75
77
85.3 88.2 82.4
13.9 14.2 11.1 11.8

Discussion

The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and a non-exercise control on measures of AA and cognition in eighth-grade adolescents. Results supported the primary hypothesis that acute exercise has the potential to improve mean math test scores compared to non-exercise. Specifically, acute resistance exercise showed the greatest improvement in math scores as compared to aerobic and non-exercise conditions. To the authors’ knowledge, such findings are novel in that they mark the first time acute resistance exercise has demonstrated positive influence on AA in a middle-school aged sample. Aerobic exercise also improved mean math score by an average of 0.44 points (out of 10), and while this result was not statistically significant, the authors believe an argument could be made that such an increase is indicative of practical significance (η2 = .04)[19]. Comment by Andrew Harveson: Re-statement of purpose and results/key findings. The following sentences into the second paragraph go into a bit more depth on the specifics of the findings.

Our secondary study purpose was to identify the acute effects of varying exercise types on cognition in eighth-grade students. Similarly to what was seen with AA, cognitive performance as measured by the Stroop Dot, Word, and Color tests was significantly enhanced following resistance exercise as compared to aerobic exercise and non-exercise. Again, to the authors’ knowledge, such a result is a novel finding in a middle-school aged sample. To date, the cognitive benefits of acute resistance exercise have been demonstrated in high-school students [20], college students [9], as well as adult [8] and elderly subjects [21], indicating that there may be some unique mechanisms at play with the modality of resistance exercise and its ability to positively influence AA and cognition. It is the hope of the authors that such findings will provide added justification for the inclusion of resistance exercise as an exercise modality that can be used to improve middle-school students’ academic performance and health simultaneously.

While the study of exercise and its influence on the brain has been studied for quite some time, it is only recently that in-depth examination of mechanisms involving acute exercise and its impact on AA and cognition have been explored. Despite the growth that is still occurring in this field of research, several hypotheses have been identified in previous literature that could offer insight into the findings illustrated in the present study. It is the authors’ belief that the neurotrophic-stimulation hypothesis elucidated by Hillman et al. [22] is most applicable to our findings. This hypothesis states that neuromuscular activity stimulates areas of the brain that control executive function, resource allocation, and speed of processing. In light of the notable neuromuscular adaptations that take place following a regular resistance exercise routine, especially in its early stages [23], it is within reason to conclude that this hypothesis best explains why resistance exercise notably improved AA and cognitive performance over a more traditional aerobic exercise protocol and the non-exercise control. Further, acute resistance exercise has previously demonstrated an ability to significantly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [24], which is known to play a significant role in neuroplasticity [25]. Similarly, previous research indicates that the more complex nature of acute resistance exercise, as compared to more traditional aerobic exercise such as walking or jogging, may play a significant role in elevating cognitive response. Ozkaya et al. [21] found that cognition, as directly measured by event-related potentials (ERP) in the brain, was enhanced to a greater degree by resistance exercise as compared to both aerobic exercise and non-exercise. The authors postulated that the complexity of the resistance exercise tasks caused participants to employ greater attention to external stimuli, which up-regulated neurocognitive signaling. The sum of current evidence related to brain function supports the above theories and should not be disregarded as educators seek new ways to maximize student performance in the classroom. Comment by Andrew Harveson: These paragraphs explain the mechanisms believed to have caused the results seen, as well as comparing current results to past findings.

Finally, it would be remiss not to include the cerebral blood-flow hypothesis as a potential mechanism that could potentially explain findings of the present study. The cerebral blood-flow hypothesis states that during moderate exercise intensities of up to 60% VO2max, the brain experiences an increase in blood flow and accompanying nutrients that positively enhance cognitive performance [26]. Such a mechanism should theoretically have enhanced AA and cognition similarly following both acute resistance and aerobic exercise in the present study, which were programmed at moderate intensities. It is also feasible that truly significant brain benefits are seen via synergism between increased cerebral blood flow and the neurotrophic factors identified previously. Additional research should look to isolate the precise mechanisms that drive improvements in executive function that are consistently seen throughout the current body of research surrounding acute exercise.

Findings from the present study are certainly encouraging to those advocating the need for increased levels of physical activity in today’s schools. However, this study was not without its limitations, which must be noted. Likely, the most significant limitation was the absence of a precise measure of intensity during the exercise protocols. Student-reported RPE was collected during each bout of exercise, and while there were no statistical differences in RPE between protocols (F1,61 = 2.76, p = .102), it is possible that aerobic and resistance exercise were not precisely matched for intensity. Given the previously stated influence of cerebral blood flow on cognitive function, such a limitation could skew results. Further, while the non-exercise protocol was based on past research, affect and arousal level were not directly measured, which could have potentially had a small influence on our results. An additional limitation of this study was the unequal representation of boys and girls. While it would have been desirable to have a representation that more closely matched the student body as a whole, the PE classes that were made available for sampling were comprised primarily of boys. Future study should aim to more closely match the representation of sexes in order to minimize potential confounding variables. Comment by Andrew Harveson: Limitations and recommendations for future research

Conclusions

In conclusion, results of the present investigation indicate principally that acute resistance exercise can positively enhance AA in standardized math tests and cognition, as measured by the Stroop test, respectively. These findings are unique in that they are the first known, published examples of acute resistance exercise augmenting specific executive functions in an eighth-grade sample. Such findings should be used to encourage greater amounts and varieties of physical activity in the modern school system with hopes that the immediate and lifelong benefits for student health and academic performance can best be realized. Comment by Andrew Harveson: Concluding paragraph summarizes the paper. Look to answer “what was found and why does it matter?”

Results

Analysis via repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in mean math test performance between resistance and non-exercise (F1,62 = 4.50, p = .038, η2 = .068). Differences in mean math test performance were statistically insignificant between aerobic exercise and non-exercise (F1,62 = 2.43, p = .124, η2 = .04), and aerobic exercise and resistance exercise (F1,62 = .214, p = .645, η2 = .003). See Figure 1 for illustrated results. Comment by Andrew Harveson: The statistical test is identified, followed by a reporting of the results of that test. Comment by Andrew Harveson: Tables and Figures can be used to help tell the story of your findings.

Figure 1. Mathematics performance following aerobic exercise (AE), resistance exercise (RE), and non-exercise (NE). * denotes statistical significance (p < 0.05)

Secondary analysis using repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant differences in mean scores between resistance exercise and non-exercise in the Stroop Dot test (F1,62 = 8.14, p = .006, η2 = .116), Stroop Word test (F1,62 = 9.90, p = .003, η2 = .138), and Stroop Color test (F1,62 = 7.57, p = .008, η2 = .109). Significant differences in mean scores were also found between resistance exercise and aerobic exercise in the Stroop Dot test (F1,61 = 25.82, p < .001, η2 = .294), Stroop Word test (F1,62 = 14.73, p < .001, η2 = .192), and Stroop Color test (F1,62 = 20.14, p < .001, η2 = .245). There were no significant differences between aerobic exercise and non-exercise across any of the Stroop Test elements. See Figure 2 for illustrated results. Comment by Andrew Harveson: Notice that the results section does not try to explain why or how the results were found, it simply reports what was found.

Figure 2. Time to complete Stroop Dot, Word, and Color tests following various exercise types. * denotes statistical significance (p < .05)

Achiever Essays
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code RESEARCH