identify and explain five concepts
BUSINESS 2465: FINAL EXAM
You recently completed a series of negotiating exercises where you took on the role of either Razer’s Edge,
(the most creative, innovative and talented CGI software company to come along in years) or Marvel Studios
(owner of the most extraordinary collection of characters, heroes and villains to ever grace the big screen).
Based on that experience over the duration of the course:
1. Briefly summarize the negotiations and the outcome, including any strong factors or communication
2. Identify, discuss and apply FIVE class concepts covered in the course since the start of term.
3. In each case identify the impact of the concept on the situation you were in. Who did it benefit?
4. Did you achieve the outcome *you wanted? Use class concepts to explain why you were or were not
You will be marked on the following:
• Summary /5
• Number of concepts *correctly identified, described and applied /10
• Discussion of concepts – correctly identifying the impact, which party benefitted and why /7
• Grammar, spelling and structure /3
• Please include a title page
• Please submit in PDF file format, *not MS Word or anything else! If you do, I will not grade it
until it is resubmitted in the correct format.
• 3,000 words MAX
• Cite only the slide number and lecture date *or textbook as applicable
7 August 2022
Submitted To- Joe Vosburgh
Sukhpreet Nagra- 100412014
Jasleen Kaur- 100414732
Manvinder Kaur- 100413252
Jyotika Sharma- 100396206
Summary of the Outcome
Was an outcome reached?
Negotiating in this modern era is complex and the most significant challenge when
individuals are not ready to understand the other party. A group of individuals only think
about their interests and tend to ignore the interests and needs of the other. But, our party
succeeded in getting into a single contract for a single film: The Eternals with Marvel.
What was achieved by both parties?
BY RAZER’S:- Razer’s actual demand was to get a 25% of the share of the profit for the
single contract, but we were unable to achieve it. Instead, we got a better deal as now Marvel
will give us 15% of the profit share of the movie but also 40% of its resources to make the
film which is beneficial for us.
BY MARVEL’S:- By getting into a single contract with Razer, Marvel is now the first
company to get its hand on innovative software and technology known as EdgeEffect, which
will give them an edge over its competitors. They were successful by having a deal in which
Razers will cover 10% of the total loss, which is a security for them.
Did the outcome favour one party over the other?
In this negotiation, both parties achieved different outcomes according to their needs. It was a
win-win situation. Both parties settled on an offer in a positive bargaining zone where both
are accomplishing something in the end. But we think that one thing here which favours
Marvel is that if the film suffers from a loss, then Razer will be obligated to pay 10% of the
total loss, which was kind of unfair towards our situation as we are a small startup company
and will not be able to cover losses if the amount is significant.
What elements of the outcome were mutually beneficial?
Firstly, both parties agreed on working under a single contract, which benefits both
companies since there would be no pressure to build long-term relationships based on
stretching false hopes and promises. Secondly, if Marvels will give 15% of the share of profit
to Razers, then the latter party will also cover 10% of the losses. Ultimately, both parties will
get mutual benefits. Moreover, Razers company is a monopolistic company with owners of
only innovative technology in the market. So, they will enjoy a competitive advantage in the
market. As a result, Marvel will also feel superior by working with such a unique software
company. This will enhance both parties’ reputations in the market. It could open doors for
more opportunities for both parties.
What issues were left unresolved if any?
After negotiation, we don’t think anything was left unsaid and unresolved regarding this
single-time contract as both parties have already discussed the shares of profits & losses and
other factors. But we should have discussed more the future and if our companies will
Were your objectives met? Yes, no, partially? Explain
Yes, our objectives were met, Firstly we wanted a profitable deal, and the share of 15% profit
made by the film is immensely fulfilling this objective as we know that a Marvel movie
makes more than 50 million on average, and it will serve as an excellent opportunity for us to
earn good amount of money. Also, we did not have the resources and hardware to support and
run our technology Edge effect, so the offer of Marvel to let us use 40% of its resources will
be very beneficial for our company as we will be able to cut our cost and save money.
Because this is a single film contract, we can continue negotiations with other companies and
work with them after completing Marvel’s project.
Our other objective was to build a good relationship and negotiate the percentage or share of
loss each party will be responsible for in case of uncertainties. Razer’s Edge is responsible for
a 10% share of the total loss, and we think it is a little high but acceptable.
We also wanted that both companies should respect the privacy of each other, which is also
met; if any party leaks information regarding the working or internal affairs of another party,
they can sue them for $20 Million.
Summary of the Negotiating Experience
Many class concepts were used throughout our negotiation. Some of our approaches helped
make the other party more vulnerable, and some methods were not that helpful. The
following are a few of the class concepts that we think were linked with our negotiations with
The selection of a communication channel is crucial when you are going to negotiate with
someone. There are a variety of communication channels such as telephone, emails, instant
messaging, virtual negotiation and much more. It was an excellent opportunity for our small
startup company to negotiate with one of the biggest film-producing companies and learn
how they deal and carry themselves, so we decided to have an in-person meeting.
Face-to-face meetings enabled a better flow of information and understanding between both
parties, and both parties strengthened the trust and reduced the need to utilize complex
When we started negotiating, the opening offer made by Marvel was $600000 for a single
contract for the film “The Eternals,” which we declined because the money offered was too
less compared to what we wanted, so we told them we would work with them if they give us
$12 million as we are using our resources and making the film cost us millions. Marvels
offered us an increase of $100,000 to the existing offer plus the liberty to use all their
resources to make this film. Here, Marvel is in a hurry to lock the deal with Razers when they
gave us a sweetener in the form of liberty to use their resources. This also showed Marvel’s
resistance point as they don’t want to go beyond 8 Lakhs and gave us access to use their
resources. On the other hand, Razer’s target point was 10 million, so we declined their offer.
We tried to intimidate Marvel by saying that our company goal for this year is 12 million,
and if they want to work with us, they better bring a reasonable offer next time as many other
big companies contacted us, and their recommendations are far better than what Marvel is
offering. If Marvel wanted our innovative technology before its competitors, they should
make a better offer before it’s too late. Although we shared some of our company information,
we don’t think it was an information leak as we only told them about our goal and didn’t share
any information that could put us in hot waters.
While negotiating, we tried to analyze marvels by asking various questions. This not only
helped us to secure information, discover their position and support our argument but also
helped us to understand Marvel’s interests and needs. For instance, when we first began
negotiating, we asked Marvels to put forth their offer first to see if it aligns with our needs and
goals and what is the limit to which we can negotiate with them. We asked for different
alternatives they have in mind if we don’t accept their offer. Why do they think their offer is
beneficial and favourable to both parties? Being an active listener when negotiation is taking
place is very important. Whenever Marvel’s negotiators were making a new offer, counteroffer
or stating something important, one of our negotiators would restate or paraphrase the
message in their language to make sure we understood their motive better and didn’t
Razer’s Edge followed the “Big five” personality factors both when negotiating with
Marvels as well as when negotiating within the team. We were curious, original, intellectual,
open to different perspectives, organized, punctual for meetings and achievement-oriented.
Razer’s tried to be sociable, tolerant and trusting, and although some situations lead to worry,
sadness and anger, we tried our best to overcome these negative emotions. For instance, when
Marvel offered us $600000 as a first offer, it was very saddening, but we tried not to be
anxious and continued the negotiation while focusing on our objectives.
During our second meeting, we gathered more information about Marvel to be prepared
more efficiently. Razer made an offer first to get the upper hand in the negotiation. We
demanded a 25% share of the profit made by the movie “The Eternals,” to which Marvel
made a counteroffer of 10% profit share and resources. Razer was unsatisfied with this offer
and asked Marvel to negotiate the profit percentage. Marvel refused to change the proposal
(10%), but Razer’s decreased it by 5%. Because both parties did not agree to reduce or
increase the offer, we tried to settle within a positive bargaining zone. So, the final proposal
to which both the parties agreed is:
It will be a single film contract; “The Eternals” and Razer’s Edge will have a 15% share of the
profit made by the film. Marvels will provide 40% of its resources for making this film to
Razer’s Edge. If there is a loss, Razer’s Edge will be obligated to pay 10% of the total loss,
and if any party leaks the information regarding the working or internal affairs of another
party, they can sue them for $20 Million.
Be prepared- Razer’s negotiators think they were well prepared for this negotiation. Better
prepared negotiators have numerous advantages, including analyzing the other party’s offers
more effectively and efficiently, understanding the nuances of the concession-making process,
and achieving their negotiating goals (Lewicki, Saunders, Barry, and Tasa, 2019, p.g. 338).
We think the time spent negotiating with Marvel was productive as Roger started preparing
for its negotiations one week before the event. We were well aware of our goals and interests
and represented Razer’s motive skillfully. As negotiators, we were ready to understand the
other party’s needs and communicate to find an agreement that meets the needs of both
parties. Our negotiation aspirations were high but achievable; we did not want to be pressured
by the other party, so we tried to gather as much information about Marvel to use it in our
Identify and work your BATNA- One of the essential sources of power in a negotiation is
the alternatives available to a negotiator if an agreement is not reached (Lewicki, Saunders,
Barry, and Tasa, 2019, p.g. 339). We wanted a good deal, so we used a strong BATNA. We
tried to make as many counteroffers as possible to marvel offers until we were satisfied with
the agreement. In our first meeting, Marvel was only making offers in a cash amount, but
when we had our second meeting, we tried to influence them by making the offer in
percentage, Which was more beneficial for us. During the meeting, we tried to monitor,
carefully understand, and retain the competitive advantage over the other negotiator’s
alternatives and tried to influence marvel by telling them the benefits of our offers.
Be willing to walk away- During our first meeting with marvels, they offered us a deal that
was not aligning with our goal as the amount offered was too low. So, we rejected their offer,
and to intimidate Marvel; we told them that if they didn’t bring a better deal next time, we
would walk away and collaborate with other companies.
Continue to learn from your experience- After our first meeting, Razor’s Edge held a team
meeting where we discussed where we were successful, what areas we were lagging and
needed more focus on, what we wanted to achieve, and how we will approach our next
meeting. These meetings with Marvels were an excellent opportunity to learn how
negotiations are sorted and how we have to approach each situation. We will use what we
learned from our talks with Marvels with other companies in future.
Summary of what worked and what didn’t
As we mentioned in the third assignment, our first choice was negotiating a long-term deal
where Marvel would pay Razer’s Edge for not only ‘The Eternals’ but also invest money in us
in exchange for our commitment to work with Marvel for the next five years. This was an
excellent opportunity for Razer’s Edge to secure a financial backup to survive and grow as a
small company, and with the help of Marvel and its funding, we would have been able to
overcome this cash shortage problem and fill the staffing and technology gaps. But because of
the circumstances, we could not negotiate this deal as Marvel wanted only a single
agreement. Moreover, when we asked them about their plans for a long-term contract, they
told us that they could make a contract for two years and want us to work only with them, but
they can not assure that we will get two films per year and investment will also be less. Razer
thought this option was not aligning with our needs and goals, so we decided to go with our
second best option of negotiating a single contract for a single film: The Eternals.
We decided to negotiate a single contract for a single film: The Eternals, because it is a
short-term contract that only involves us doing a single film, getting paid, and parting ways.
By doing this, we can contact other potential companies like Apple and DC to work with
them on big projects and establish more connections, make more money and grow our
company. We think this movie will earn more than 80 million at the box office, and with the
15% profit share, we will be able to collect 10 million in no time. Moreover, the 40% use of
Marvel resources will also be beneficial as we will be able to reduce our expenses and cost to
a great extent.
As we know, Marvel is a big film-producing company, and if this movie is a hit public will
demand its sequels. If this happens, Marvel will have to contact us again to provide them with
a new character and visual effects, so it will serve as an opportunity for us to bargain with
them and make sure that we have the upper hand in the negotiation with the contract in our
Negotiation Experience with Team 1
It was our first experience negotiating with a group of people. Although we dealt with it many
times in our day-to-day life, it was unintentional, and most of the time, we were unaware if
we were negotiating. Overall it was an outstanding experience but a little overwhelming.
How we connected with another team-
One of our team members (Jasleen) already knew two members of team 1, so she made a
combined WhatsApp group in which she added both of the teams, and later, the remaining
members were added to the combined Whatsapp group by team 1. After making the group,
we decided that only one member (Sukhpreet) of our team should write messages in the
combined group after discussing the material within our team so that we don’t repeat things
and make mistakes by writing something unnecessary.
When we met-
After connecting with the other group, we decided to meet in person on Wednesday, 3 Aug, at
the class time at 7:00 pm in the sitting area of the primary building as everyone was available
to negotiate. As we did not reach a specific deal in our first meeting, we decided to hold
another meeting. For our second meeting, we discussed in the combined group and agreed on
the time and place to meet. We had our second meeting on Friday, 5 Aug at 11:00 am in the
setting area of the Cedar building.
As a team
Our overall team experience was excellent. Our primary interaction source was WhatApp, as
we had already created a Whatsapp group for the previous assignment. WhatsApp is an easy
and quick way to communicate, and we held meetings through group and video calls.
Everyone in the group was interactive and shared their ideas regarding the assignment.
Messaging helped our team to coordinate better and allowed us to share and gain more
knowledge and experience.
For this assignment, we picked the parts per the question weightage, as the first part had the
highest weightage. Manvinder and Jyotika collaborated and did that part. They divided the
bullet points among themselves, the first three points were written by Manvinder, and Jyotika
did the last three. Sukhpreet did the second and fourth parts of the assignment as she was the
representative of our team for this negotiation and was more optimistic about doing the lesson
concepts. Jasleen did the third part as she attended the class when this chapter was explained
and had a better understanding of the topic. The following table shows how the work was
divided among members-
Summary of the Outcome Manvinder and Jyotika
Summary of the Negotiating Experience Sukhpreet
Best Practices Jasleen
Summary of what worked and what didn’t Sukhpreet
Negotiating Team Experience
Grammar, spelling and structure
We created a google document to do our assignment, and we were all adding our ideas to the
same google document so that anyone could view and edit it if required. It was a little
overwhelming as the negotiations were still ongoing till Friday, and we had to cover a lot in a
short period. As we still had ongoing talks with Marvels, we could not start our parts as
changes were taking place with each negotiation.
Lewicki, R.J., Saunders, D.M., Barry. B., and Tasa, K. (2019). Essentials of Negotiation, 3rd
Canadian edition. McGraw Hill Education
BUSINESS 2465 ASSIGNMENT INFO: TEAM Assignment – Preparing for Negotiations!!
Who you are:
• You are the founders, owners and leaders of Razer’s Edge, the most creative, innovative and talented
CGI software company to come along in years.
• You are quickly making a name for yourself with you stunning character creation and visual effects.
• Your technology is based on your creation of ground-breaking graphics and rendering software you
have called EdgeEffect that you have patented 100%.
• You have attracted the interest of a number of the world’s biggest studios (also known as the “property
owners”) including Disney, Marvel and DC. Conversations are ongoing with these studios, but nothing
concrete has happened yet.
However, as a reasonably new and young company, you have a number of challenges to overcome:
• You’re small. You currently don’t have the capacity to take on any major film project because of a
lack of software developers, motion designers, additional staff and the necessary computer hardware to
host and run EdgeEffect.
• You need to raise almost $10million and 12 months to fill the staffing and technology gaps above.
• You’re burning through cash at a tremendous rate – $500,000 per month. With your current staff and
expenses, you have enough money in the bank to keep Razer’s Edge running for only 4 months.
• You have been approached by Marvel to serve as the primary provider of all CGI effects for their next
project, The Eternals. You are in the phase of preparing for negotiations with Marvel on a major
contract for this film.
• You are uncertain as to the overall value of the contract for this film at this stage, however, one film is
likely to lead to many more. This industry is characterized by long relationships between studios (ie
Marvel) and production companies (ie Razer’s Edge).
• You have also had interesting and promising discussions with DC Comics, Amazon and Apple+, but
nothing specific so far – no mention of specific projects, movies or characters.
• For these negotiations, you can explore three possible options:
o Negotiate a single contract for a single film: The Eternals
o Attempt to negotiate a long-term deal where they would pay you for The Eternals but also
invest $ in Razer’s Edge in exchange for your commitment to work ONLY with Marvel for
the next 5 years.
o Sell them your company outright and walk away from Razer’s Edge forever.
Your Assignment is to prepare for negotiations with Marvel:
1. Prepare a summary of your company – a one paragraph introduction based on the description above.
2. Prepare a summary of the strengths and weaknesses of your position heading into the negotiation.
3. Prepare an overall goal for the company – as the founders and owners, what do you want to achieve in
the long run for Razer’s Edge? For example, do you want to take a long term approach and grow it
into a huge company like Pixar or DreamWorks, or would you like to sell it as soon as possible and get
out with a nice tidy sum of $? How much money do you want in each case and why?
4. Provide a summary of the experience your team had in preparing items #1 to #3:
• How did you communicate? Email, texts, FaceTime, phone calls, MS Teams, Skype, etc?
• How did you distribute the work? IE, who is doing which portion of the Assignment? A
You will be marked on the following:
1. Summary /2
2. Strength and Weaknesses /4
3. Overall Company Goals /3
4. Negotiating Team Experience /4
5. Grammar, spelling and structure. /2
• Please have *one team member submit the entire assignment on behalf of their team.
• Please include a title page
• Please submit in PDF file format, *not MS Word or anything else! If you do, I will not grade it
until it is resubmitted in the correct format.
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