RES710 Week 6 Discussion and Student Responses

Discussion 1
When implementing a research study, it is important to know the relationship between
confidence intervals, sample sizes, and estimated standard errors.
Write a 250- to 300-word response to the following:

Explain the relationship between confidence intervals, sample sizes, and estimated
standard errors.
How might understanding these elements be useful in understanding your mock data
used throughout this course?
Include your own experience as well as 2 citations that align with or contradict your comments
as sourced from peer-reviewed academic journals, industry publications, books, and/or other
sources. Cite your sources according to APA guidelines. If you found information that
contradicts your experience, explain why you agree or disagree with the information.
Discussion 2
Refer to the research question and hypotheses you created in Week 1.
Write a 250- to 300-word response to the following:

Discuss each of the 5 steps in hypothesis testing as it relates to your data.
Note: You will only need to explain steps 4 and 5 in general, but steps 1-3 should be fairly
specific to your data.
Week 1 information: Independent and dependent variables
My independent variable is poverty in the Black community and my dependent variables are
discrimination and education. These GSS variables are racdif1 and racdif3. African Americans
have a lower average income than Whites and an equal average income as Latinos on a
national level. There is a significant relationship between poverty and discrimination. The data
that I will be using for this research project is from The General Social Survey. I will be using
results from the years 1977-2021. As a whole, African Americans are more impoverished than
any other race (Mode et al., 2016). From the years 1972-2021, the African American population
was shown to live below the poverty line, which is a higher percentage than any other race in
America (Iceland, 2019). The General Social Survey data will be used to examine the relationship
between social class and discrimination, race, and income. The General Social Survey data will
also be used to measure the level of education in African American households.
Research Questions
How does discrimination affect African Americans from rising above poverty?
Are African Americans struggling with poverty because of their levels of education?
Do African Americans have a low income on average because of their level of education?
Do African Americans have a low income on average because they are discriminated against?
Is there a better relationship between racial discrimination and education than between racial
discrimination and income?
Null and Alternative Hypothesis
Null hypothesis: Poverty among African Americans is a result of discrimination and lack of
adequate education.
Alternative hypothesis: Poverty among African Americans is not a result of discrimination and
lack of adequate education.
Iceland, J. (2019). Racial and ethnic inequality in poverty and affluence, 1959–2015. Population
Research and Policy Review, 38(5), 615–654.
Mode, N. A., Evans, M. K., & Zonderman, A. B. (2016). Race, neighborhood economic status,
income inequality, and mortality. PLOS ONE, 11(5).
Student Response 1: Student response 1: Review the classmates’ posts and respond to at
least one in a minimum of 150 words. Explain why you agree or disagree. Then, share an
example from your professional experience to support your assertions.
Confidence Interval is the sum of all given data counts based on an average input or an
average mean. Often the range of data counts can distinguish proportional from median. The
mode of all data counts is continuous that it simply sets a definite number to its stability.
Confidence Intervals would fall in between two given factors – permitting a data count become
Sample Size is the larger numbers that are inserted to test a hypothetical estimate. Estimates
are either unbaises, unformed, or it is adjusted to its method of measurements. Meaning that
the method is to sample a population number (larger number) and set into various
Estimated Standards of Errors is the interval level between two demeaning counts that rejects
or differentiate two variables. The best way to explain Estimated Standards of Errors is similar
to “tolerance” count – example: 5 or -5, we can set either 4,3, 2 as tolerance to -2,-3,-4. If the
estimated standards predict an allowance, then the error is concluded with an absolute
tolerance of permittance.
My Mock Study based on communication style utilizing mobile phones as a great way to
measure sound based on frequency range allows users to understand the difference in
database systems providing the longevity for connection. There are mobile phones that do not
reach its potential connection in certain locations because the range did not fulfill its
establishment due to area, zone, or jurisdiction. Communication Programs are integrated from
landline, cable, and now automated system generated programs that seeks for landline or
cable/wifi or data to support a virtual telephone mode. That mode is the total wire
communication using telephone modulars and telephone wires. Cable has its one set of
inferences and thus landline is gimmicked to twitch either/or …if not its own product service.
Mary Grace O. Ordonez
Student Response 2: Student response 1: Review the classmates’ posts and respond to at
least one in a minimum of 150 words. Explain why you agree or disagree. Then, share an
example from your professional experience to support your assertions.
Hypothesis Testing is situated to prove either / or sampling of sound (communication
style). However, reading comprehension as to send and receive is based on frequency
count. If a mobile phone is relative to artificial voice, then the interpretation should
maximize an accurate count to 100% hearing. The circumference of receiving point is
based on mental intelligence at either rate of acceptance (left brain or right brain). This
seems broad, yet the ideological conspiracy to communication is much similar to a
“conversation with the person sitting next to you on an airplane.” Aircraft Instrument Panel
tests its hypothesis of range prior to lift off because Air Traffic Control must offer airway,
permittance, and tolerance. Similarly, the sound of headphones to its plug-in unit versus
wireless headphones and blue tooth effects to the mental capacitance.
If I broke down my mock study into detail, then the concentration is left ear or right ear of
hearing and receiving. Very important opposition for many panel controllers from aviation,
computer systems, model modulars from one telecommunication device to vehicles.
Research Concentration: Left Ear receives below level of percentage or Right Ear receives
average level of acceptance; thus the proportionate mental capacitance proves that the
average mobile user utilizes his or her right ear to listen into a mobile phone.
Descriptive Utilizations: (reason for descriptive is based on sound tones and level of
Quantitative Variables
Categorical Variables
The 5 Steps to Hypothesis Testing: General Measurements:
Check Assumption and Write Hypothesis *
Compute the Test Statistics
Determine the P-Value
Make a Decision
State a Real World Conclusion
Randomization Measurements:

Single Mean
Single Proportion
Test Difference in Means
Test Difference in Proportions
Test for Slope (Range of Sound Acceptance VALUED from left to right and right to left)
Test Correlation
General Measurements
1. Chi – Square Test (Group Relations)
2. P-Value (Accuracy Dependency)
3. Null Hypothesis (based on average consumer – quantitative description
Statistic Configurations (Assumption Plug-Ins)
1. Sound level based on airflight travels – sitting in an airplane cabin seat
2. Rotation and Common Tilts to response of sound from right to left ear
3. Sound Level on Mobile Phone
4. Sound Level from the car horn parked next to your care (with windows close or with
windows open)
Mary Grace O. Ordonez
Pennsylvania State University (2022). Five Step Hypothesis Testing Procedure.
11.2.1 – Five Step Hypothesis Testing Procedure | STAT 200 (
Pennsylvania State University (2022). Randomization Procedures. 5.3 – Randomization
Procedures | STAT 200 (
1. Chi – Square
2. .

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