Statistical Methods in Criminal Justice Questions.

Directions: Highlight the correct answer.

1. The variation ratio offers information about what?

whether the variation ratio and variance are indicating similar squares of the deviation scores

whether the data tend to cluster inside the modal category or whether a fair amount of the cases are located in

other categories

whether the variance, standard deviation, and range are in accord with the bounding rule

whether the modal category adheres to the midpoint of the margins rule

S2 is the statistical symbol for ______.

variance

standard deviation

none of these

square root

Substantively, the ______ is the mean of the deviation scores.

minimum

maximum

standard deviation

Variation

The variation ratio is a spinoff of what rule?

the rule of limits

the rule of requirement

the rule of boundary

the rule of the complement

A very large variation ratio would be indicative of which of the following circumstances?

a vast majority of the cases outside the modal category

a vast majority of cases having a standard deviation of −1.00

a vast majority of the cases in the modal category

a vast majority of cases having a small variance

The amount of spread or variability among scores in a distribution is also referred to as which of

the following?

clustering

valence

normality

dispersion

There is a rule dictating that all proportions range from 0.00 to 1.00. What is the name of this rule?

rule of complement

bounding rule

rule of completeness

boundary requiremen

In a normal distribution, approximately how many of the scores lie within 1 standard deviation

below and 1 standard deviation above the mean.

67% or 2/3

25% or1/4

75% or 3/4

50% or half

A great deal of dispersal in a data distribution would ultimately produce

which of the following?

a negative variance

a negative standard deviation

a large standard deviation

a small standard deviation

In order to calculate the variation ratio, what must first be identified?

standard deviation

median

mean

Mode

The sum of the deviation scores used in the calculation of the variance

and standard deviation will always be ______.

0.1

none of these, as deviation scores do not play a role in the

calculation of the variance

0

1

In the following list, the only measure of dispersion that is suitable

for nominal and ordinal data is ______.

the dispersal ratio

the variation ratio

the bounding rule

the ratio

Which of the following is true with regard to the variance?

The variance is essentially the sum of the total squared

deviations from the mean divided by the sample size −1.

The variance is essentially the square of the deviation scores.

The variance is essentially the square root of the squared

deviations from the mean divided by the sample size.

The variance is essentially the sum of the deviation scores

The standard deviation is actually a relatively simple statistic to

calculate because ______.

it is the square root of the deviation scores

it is the square of the deviation scores

it is the square root of the variance

it is the square of the variance

The Rule of the Complement maintains that ______.

the proportion of cases that are not in a certain category can

be found by subtracting the proportion that is in that category

from 0.

the value of the variance when added to the standard

deviation of a distribution will always sum to 1.00.

the proportion of cases that are not in a certain category can

be found by subtracting the proportion that is in that category

from 1.00.

the value of the variation ratio when added to the variance

will always sum to 1.00.

The normal or typical scores in a distribution are located

approximately ______ and ______ the mean.

two variations below; two variations above

one variation below; one variation above

2 standard deviations below; 2 standard deviations above

1 standard deviation below; 1 standard deviation above

Which of the following is a better measure of dispersion when the

data are continuous?

range

mean

variance

variation ratio

Generally speaking, scores that are more than one ______ below

or above the mean are not common.

variance

variation ratio

none of the above

standard deviation

What is the measure of how much a distribution curve’s width

departs from normality?

leptokurtosis

dispersion

variance

kurtosis

The standard deviation is usually presented in conjunction with

the ______ in the description of a continuous variable.

range

median

mean

mode

The mean of the deviation scores in any data distribution is also

known by research scientists as what?

the mean

the variation ratio

the standard deviation

the variance

Dispersion can also be understood as the amount of ______ in a

set of raw scores.

variability

normality

skew

Closeness

One disadvantage of using the range as a measure of dispersion

is ______?

it is not a reliable measure suitable for use with continuous

or interval level data

it uses very little of the data in a distribution, therefore a

researcher has no information regarding the shape of the

distribution

it uses most of the raw data in a distribution, therefore

allowing a researcher little discretion in the analysis

it offers a researcher so much information regarding the

shape of the distribution that subsequent analyses are

rendered unnecessary

One characteristic of the Standard Deviation is that it can never be ______.

the square root of the variance

a negative number

a positive number

the absolute value of the variance

A ______ standard deviation would be indicated by a clustering of the raw values close to the mean of the

distribution.

large

normal

small

skewed

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